Skip to main content

Full text of "Concise Irish grammar with pieces for reading"

See other formats


Sonfcon: C. J. CLAY, M.A. AND son, 


17, Paternoster Row. 

Catnfirtoge: DEIGHTON, BELL, AND CO. 

%ti&iQ; P. A. BROCKHAT78. 













<£ambrtoge ; 



I WAS at work upon an edition of the fragment of the 
Irish version of the Historia Britonum in Leabhar na 
Huidri when the Kurzgefasste Irische Grammatik of 
Professor Windisch appeared, and I found it so clear and 
well arranged a guide to the verbal forms of Irish that I 
wrote to ask the author's leave to translate the Grammar 
into English. Prof. Windisch, at once liberally gave me 
permission to make the translation, and has been so good 
as to send me several corrections which he has made since 
his book was published. These alterations with those 
given in his preface are put in their places throughout the 
Grammar. The whole responsibility for the translation is 
mine, but he has read each sheet as it passed through the 

The earliest printed Grammar of the Irish language is 
by a Franciscan, Francis O'Molloy. It is in Latin, is 
entitled Grammatica Latino-Hibernica, and was printed 
at Rome in 1677. Since this publication several Irish 
Grammars have appeared ; of which the best known are : 

E. Lhwyd: (prefixed to his Irish-English Dictionary). Oxford, 1707. 

Hugh Boy Mac Curtin : Elements of the Irish Language. London, 
1728; Paris, 1732. 

Andrew Donlevy: Elements (appended to his Catechism). Paris, 
1742 and many subsequent editions. 

Vallancey: Irish Grammar. 1773 and 1782. 

Wm. Halliday: TJraicecht na Gaedilge. Dublin, 1808; 2nd ed. 1812. 

vi Translator's Preface, 

Wm. Neilson (and Patrick Lynch) : Introduction to the Irish Lan- 
guage.,. cDublin, 1808. 

Paul O'Brien: Practical Grammar of the Irish Language. Dublin, 

John O'Connell : Instructions for Heading Irish. Cork, 1813. 

Patrick Lynch (another) : Introduction. Dublin, 1815. 

E. O'Reilly : Compendious Irish Grammar. Dublin, 1817. 

James Scurry : An Introduction to the Irish Language. Waterford, 

1820. * ; ; 

0"wen Connellan : Practical Grammar. Dublin, 1844. 

John 'Donovan : Grammar of the Irish Language. Dublin, 1845. 

J. C. Zeuss : Grammatica Celtica. Berlin, 1853. 

ed. Ebel. Berlin, 1871. 

John H. Molloy : A Grammar of the Irish Language. Dublin, 1865. 

These publications, of several of which a full account 
may be found in the preface to O'Donovan' s Irish Gram- 
mar and in James Scurry's Review of Irish Grammars 
and Dictionaries (Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy, 
Vol. XV.) may be considered as, in different ways, works 
of authority with perhaps the exception of the compila- 
tions of Lhwyd, Vallancey, Halliday and O'Reilly. Two 
brief and useful Grammars based upon that of O'Donovan 
are : 

Charles H. H. Wright: Grammar of the Modern Irish Language. 
Dublin, 1855. 

P. W. Joyce : School Irish Grammar. Dublin, 1879. 

The Grammars of O'Donovan and of Zeuss are those 
which are of most importance by far to students of Irish. 

O'Donovan, who was born at Atateemore, Co. Kil- 
kenny, in 1809, was well versed in the existing idiom of 
his mother tongue. In connexion with the Ordnance 
Survey he had travelled into every part of Ireland, and 
was thus acquainted with all the dialects prevalent in his 
day. He edited many volumes of Irish texts and tran- 
scribed a vast number of MSS., so that he also acquired 
an extended knowledge of the vocabulary and grammatical 

Translator's Preface. vii 

forms of mediaeval Irish. The materials for a study of the 
most ancient form of Irish (Old-Irish) are not copious in 
Ireland, and it was in the language of the early period 
that his knowledge was least profound. His Grammar 
will always be valuable as a storehouse of trustworthy 
information on Modern Irish in the widest sense of the 

The Grammatica Celtica of Zeuss, besides its merit 
as a work of general philological learning, is a mine of 
wealth for the ancient form of Irish. It is of course much 
more than a collection of material. Its arrangement, and 
its demonstration of the relations of the Celtic languages 
to one another and of their vocabulary and grammatical 
forms to the Indo-European and especially to the Classical 
forms, placed the study of Irish upon a basis of obser- 
vation from which the history of the language and the 
explanation of the difficulties of the literature may be 
surely elucidated. 

Others, among the grammatical treatises enumerated 
above, are of value as illustrations of the dialect of several 
parts of Ireland : thus Mac Curtin wrote of Clare ; Neil- 
son and Lynch, of Down; O'Brien, of Meath; O'Connell, of 
Kerry; Lynch, of Limerick; Scurry, of Kilkenny; Connel- 
lan, of Sligo ; John H. Molloy, of Galway. The last in a 
lesser degree is of the same kind of value as O'Donovan. 
The author having conversed in Irish with men from all 
parts of Ireland, noted their local idioms, and has given 
the examples in his Grammar. 

The dialects of Modern Irish were not without 
their representatives in earlier periods of the language, 
though how far back is not yet known, and a study of 
their peculiarities will in many cases give the explanation 
of otherwise inexplicable varieties in MSS. 

Zeuss may be considered the founder of the study of 

viii Translator's Preface. 

Old Irish. Whitley Stokes has, since the time of Zeuss, 
added most to this branch of the subject, and will, I hope, 
long continue the Bentley of Celtic studies. I may add, 
that Mr Stokes encouraged me in the present transla- 
tion. Fearganainm O'Domhnallain and William Wotton, 
both of St Catharine's College, in past centuries did some 
work which deserves recollection, but Mr Henry Bradshaw 
of King's College will always be regarded as the real 
founder of Celtic studies at Cambridge, and this trans- 
lation, like so many more important publications, has 
received kindly help from him. 

Prof. Windisch's work is the first exclusive Grammar 
of Irish in which the subject is begun on an Old Irish 
basis and treated in the method of modern philology, 
with the rudiments of which it presupposes an ac- 
quaintance. It gives a concise view of the knowledge 
of Old Irish as it stands after the labours of Zeuss and 
of Stokes with those of Windisch himself, of Hennessy, 
Ascoli, Ebel, Nigra and others. 


The College, 
St Babtkolomew's Hospital, London. 
October, 1882. 


This concise Irish Grammar was (1879) separated for 
practical reasons from a larger work, Irische Texte mit 
Worterbuch, which has since been published. The 
Grammar forms a separate book and is furnished with 
some pieces for reading which are not contained in the 
larger work. If this Grammar prove of use in facilitating 
and encouraging the highly interesting study of the Old 
Irish language and literature, it will have attained its 
object, for I have not attempted to give in it an ex- 
haustive or a comparative grammar of the Irish language. 
This last, with the reference to the rest of the Celtic 
languages, I have reserved for my part of the Gram- 
matikcn-bibliothek suggested by Breitkopf and Hartel. 

In order, however, to bring this difficult language 
within easier reach of the beginner I have treated the 
phonology comparatively, at least so far as seemed advi- 
sable for beginners. The discussion in detail of difficult 
questions, the most modern problems of comparative 
phonology and the statement of all the etymologies 
known to me lay wide of my practical object. Repetition 
of the same words in the examples has been as far as 
possible avoided. 

The form of the language which I have chiefly had in 

x Preface. 

view is Old Irish, and of my sources of information the 
famous Grammatica Celtica of J. Caspar Zeuss stands in 
the first line. Its second edition (Berlin, 1871) owing to 
the faithful work of Hermann Ebel is greatly improved, 
supplemented and usefully arranged. Ebel's Keltische 
Studien, which are scattered through nearly all the 
volumes of the Beitrage zur Vergleichenden Sprach- 
forschung, have greatly contributed to the improvement 
of this second edition. The numerous books and papers 
of Whitley Stokes afford an abundance of further materials 
and in the Verb I have been deeply indebted to his 
treatises in the vith and vnth volumes of the Beitrage 
zur Vergleichenden Sprachforschung and to the passages 
from the Milan codex in his Goidelica (2nd ed., London, 
1872). In his Commentary on the Irish glosses, A 
Mediaeval Tract on Latin Declension (Dublin, 1860), 
paradigms are interspersed besides numerous etymo- 
logies and phonetic observations. His annotations on 
O'Donovan's translation of Cormac's Glossary (Calcutta, 
1868) also contain many valuable philological observations. 
His Kemarks on the Celtic additions to Curtius' Greek 
Etymology (Calcutta, 1874), enlarged 1875, and in the 
main repeated in the vinth volume of the Beitrage zur 
Vergleichenden Sprachforschung must be further con- 
sidered in phonetic reference. In this last treatise some 
laws of substitution of sounds are set forth, which I do 
not think firmly established. I have made use of the first 
part of G. I. Ascoli's long looked-for complete edition of 
the Milan glosses (Archivio Glottologico Italiano, Vol. v.) 1 . 
As my own papers on Celtic subjects, written after my 
contributions to the fourth edition of Curtius' Grundzuge 
der Griechischen Etymologie, are printed in several pub- 
lications I have here given a list of them : 
1 The second part appeared in 1882. 

Preface. xi 

(1.) Loss and appearance of P in the Celtic languages — Beitrage zur 
Vergl. Sprachf. viii. 1 — 48. 

(2.) The Irish T-preterite. Beitrage zur V. S. viii. 442—470. 

(3.) The reduplicated perfect in Irish — Zeitschrift fur Vergl. Sprachf. 
xxiii. 201—266. 

(4.) The Irish Infinitive— Bezzenberger's Beitrage zur Kunde der 
Indog. Spr. n. 72 et seq. 

(5.) The Irish laws of termination — Paul and Braune's Beitrage zur 
Gesch. d. deutsch Spr. iv. 204—270. 

The first of the ahove papers has been examined and 
criticized in the nd vol. of H. Gaidoz' Revue Celtique, by 
Wh. Stokes, J. Rhys, and H. d'Arbois de Jubainville. I 
received a second part of H. Zimmer's Celtic Studies in 
the XXIV th volume of the Zeitschr. fur Vergl. Sprachf. 
after this Grammar, including the addenda, was already 
in print. T mention this because the equation of the 
Irish re, le with the Sanskrit ri and notes regarding the 
accent in Irish are found there on which Zimmer promises 
an elaborate treatise. 

Literary authority is not given for every single word 
and form, for most of them are readily discoverable in 
the above-mentioned works. In addition it ought to be 
mentioned that lexicographic works and indexes have 
been promised from more than one quarter in the near 
future. In a case where difficulties of every kind have 
had to be combated it is only natural that some questions 
should have received less attention than others. With 
regard to the separation of grammatical forms which are 
written in one word in most MSS. I have not always been 
consistent. I have nevertheless attained fixed principles 
on the subject, the enunciation of which I have reserved 
till the publication of the introduction to my Irische 
Texte. Still many examples are no doubt printed to- 
gether in this book, partly in error, partly from uncer- 
tainty, which would be better separated. The inconse- 

xii Preface. 

quenee of Irish orthography in MSS. is well known : a 
great part of it is due to the fact that the scribes some- 
times retained the ancient written form and sometimes 
followed the changed pronunciation of their own time. 
I have given the forms as I found them and have only 
allowed myself a certain uniformity in the paradigms. 

Old Irish is the language of the vinth and ixth cen- 
turies, as it is found in the glosses of the MSS. of 
Milan, S. Gall, Wiirzburg, Karlsruhe, Turin, &c. In the 
Appendix of the Grammatica Celtica specimens of them 
are to be seen. The Turin glosses have been published 
in extenso by C. Nigra (Paris, 1869), and by Stokes in 
the Goidelica. In the latter are numerous shorter Old 
Irish glosses gleaned from other MSS. together with the 
Irish annotations of the Book of Armagh, a MS. of the 
IX th century. The Codex of S. Gall (gleanings from 
which are edited in Nigra's Reliquie Celtiche, Turin, 
1872) is to be published in full by Ascoli after the Milan 
Codex. [Le Chiose Irlandesi del Codice di San Gallo. 
Arehiv. Glott. Ital. Vol vi., 1880. In the meantime a 
collection of the Old Irish glosses in the minor manu- 
scripts, but including those of the Wiirzburg and the two 
Karlsruhe manuscripts, was published by H. Zimmer, 
Glossae Hibernicae Berol. 1881.] 

The xth and XI th centuries are scarcely represented 
by more important MSS. [The Irish of the Stowe Missal 
is attributed by Wh. Stokes to the XI th or xilth century. 
Ztsch. f. Vergl. Spof. xxvi., p. 298.] The oldest Middle 
Irish MSS. begin about the year 1100. To this period 
belongs the Leabhar na huidre (Royal Irish Academy), 
Dublin, published in facsimile 1870. The Liber Hymnorum 
well known through Stokes' Goidelica is somewhat later. 
The Book of Leinster belonging to the xilth century will 
also be published in facsimile (published 1880) and from 

Preface. xiii 

the somewhat later MSS. the Leabhar Breac was pub- 
lished in 1876 in two volumes by the Royal Irish Academy. 
My Irische Texte contains interesting texts taken from 
these sources. Mr Whitley Stokes who looked over the 
first two sheets in proof noted that w, y, z were not men- 
tioned in § 1. The Irish x (excluding borrowed words) 
is only found for cs when these sounds occur in sequence, 
owing to the suppression of a vowel, e.g. in foxal meta- 
plasmus for fo-co-sal Latin salio (cf. § 336). Y on\j occurs 
in borrowed words as ymmon — Latin hymnus. Z is less 
still a true Irish sound, yet compare baitzisi baptizavit 
eum Goid 2 p. 87, line 1 (Book of Armagh). On § 11 
Stokes suggests that the Irish di answers to the Cymric ai 
and the Irish di to the Cymric u. It seems to me that 
this distinction which I had myself remarked cannot be 
carried through. On § 57 Stokes notes some words with 
iu in initial sound in which he thinks that the i represents 
an original j, e.g. iug — snide tribunal Sg. 50 a (Z 2 855) 
iurad factum est (Book of Armagh) the last allied to the 
Old Gaulish ecoopov fecit. 


December 22, 1878. 



I. Phonology, § 1—108 . 1—32 

Alphabet and Pronunciation, § 1 — 5. 

Vowels, § 6—28 ; Infection, § 16—24 ; Shortening of long 
Vowels, § 25 ; Suppression of Vowels, § 26 ; Variation 
of Vowels, § 27 ; Sequence of Vowels, § 28. 

Consonants, § 29 — 77 ; Aspiration, § 59 — 68 ; Assimila- 
tion, §69 — 73; Compensatory lengthening, §74—77. 

Intercalation of Vowels, § 78; Metathesis, § 79 — 80; 
Contraction, § 81—85. 

Terminal sound, § 86—106; Aspiration, § 91—96; 
Eclipsis, § 97—101. 

Prosthesis, § 107—108 ; Apheresis, § 108 b — 108 c . 

II. Declension, § 109—170 33—45 

i a Stems in a, § 110—114 ; i b Stems in ia, § 115 — 120 ; 
ii Stems in i, § 121—125 ; in Stems in u, § 126—133 ; 
iv a Dental stems, § 134 — 143 ; iv b Guttural stems, 
§ 144-^-148 ; iv c The terms of relationship in ?*, 
§ 149 — 151 ; iv d Masculine and feminine stems in n 
and nn, iv e Neuters in man, mann, iv f Neuters in 
as and other stems in s, § 164 — 167 ; Isolated and 
hitherto inexplicable stems, § 168 — 170. 

III. The Article, § 171— 180 46—48 

IV. Comparison, § 181—188 * 49—50 
V. Adverbs, § 189 51 

VI. Pronouns, § 190—228 52—61 

Demonstrative, §190—198; Personal, §199— 206; Posses- 
sive, § 207—210; Self, § 211; Eelative, § 212—214; 
Interrogative, § 215—219 ; Indefinite, § 220—228, 

VII. Numerals, § 229—236 f 62—64 

Cardinal, § 229—232 ; Ordinal, § 233 ; Numeral substan- 
tives, § 234 ; Multiplicative, § 235 ; Distributive, § 236. 

VIII. Prepositions § 237— 247 b . . . , . . 65—68 
Prepositions in composition, § 241 — 247. 

xvi Table of Contents. 


IX. Veebs, § 248—389 69—119 

Conjugations, § 248; Tenses, § 249—250; Verbal parti- 
cles, §251; Passive and Deponent Verbs, § 253; 
Absolute and Conjoined forms, § 254. 

Active voice, § 255—311 71—92 

Present (1. Indicative, 2. Conjunctive, 3. Imperative, 
4. Second Present, 5. Present of habit), § 255— 264 c , 

6. T-past, § 265—268; 7. S-past,§ 269—274; 8 and 
9. Reduplicated future with Conditional, § 275 — 281; 
10 and 11. B-future with Conditional, § 282—284; 12 
and 13. S-future with Conditional, § 285—289 ; 14. 
Perfect, § 290—303 ; Other tense forms, § 304—311. 

Passive voice, § 312—332 92—99 

Present (1. Ind., 2. Conj., 3. Imperat., 4. Second Pre- 
sent), § 312 — 314; 5 and 6. Reduplicated Future with 
Conditional, § 315—317 ; 7 and 8. B-future with Con- 
ditional, § 318—319 ; 9 and 10. S-future with Condi- 
tional, § 320—323 ; Past, § 324—328 ; The 1st and 2nd 
Persons in the Passive, § 329—332. 

Deponent, § 333—352 99—106 

1. Indicative, 2. Conjunctive Present, § 333—337 ; 3. 
S-past,- § 338—340; 4. B-future, § 341—342; 5. 
S-future, § 343—345 ; 6. Reduplicated Future, § 346 ; 

7. Perfect, § 347—350; ro fetar, § 351 ; Deponent forms 
in Modern Irish, § 352. 

Participles, § 353—362 106—109 

1. Perfect Passive participle, §353 — 359; 2. Participium 
necessitatis, § 360. 

Infinitive, § 363—382 110—116 

Verb substantive, § 383—389 116—119 

1. as, § 384—385; 2. std, § 386—387; 3. vel, § 338; 4. 
Bhu, § 389. 

X. Paeticles, § 390—403 120—124 

1. Negative, § 390, 391 ; 2. Question and Answer, § 392 
—393 ; 3. Conjunctions, § 394—400 ; 4. Particles used 
as prefixes, § 401—403. 

Addenda (on the position of the long accent, value in 

quantity, aceent and so forth) 125 — 128 

Pieces eoe Reading . 129 — 141 

Dictionary 143 — 166. 



1 . The Old Irish alphabet consists of the following letters : 
a b c (ch) d e f (ph) ghilmnoprst (th) u, with the 
long vowels, d e i 6 u, the true diphthongs ia, di de, 6i 6e, ua, 
au, and the improper diphthongs enumerated § 18 et seq. 
x is sometimes met with as another form of writing cs. 
y and % occur only in borrowed words. 

- The Old Irish writing is a peculiar form of the Roman 
character, and is in use to this day, 

2. In Modern Irish the consonants dtgclrns, whether 
preceding or following a broad vowel (a o u), have the broad 
pronunciation corresponding to that in German, after or before 
a slender vowel a liquid pronunciation. S in this case has the 
sound of the English sh. In like manner ch is differently pro- 
nounced as the German ch in ach and ich, 

3. The sounded spirants gh dh bh mh show the same differ- 
ence in pronunciation, but are not distinguished till the later 
writings from the unaspirated g d b m (§ 68). 

dh has in Modern Irish the pronunciation of gh: both 
sounds before or after a broad vowel resemble the spirant in 
the German word Magen, and both before or after a slender 
vowel sound like the German j : as terminal sounds they become 

bh before or after a broad vowel sounds like the German w f 
before or after a slender vowel like the English v. In median 
sound between short broad vowels it becomes vocalized into w, 
I. G. 1 

2 L Phonology. 

mh has the same pronunciation but with a nasal sound. 
Both bh and mh in initial sound are always pronounced in 
Munster like the English v. (O'Donovan, Grammar, pp. 46, 

4. th is pronounced in Modern Irish like A, as also is s or 
sh (§ 91); ph like the German// /"is silent. 

Even in Old Irish lathe , day, is found contracted to laa, 
Id, and the aspirated s and f are left out in writing : senaig 
for sesnaig, the perfect of snigim ; sith-laith for sith-flaith, 
Fiacc's Hymn 19; ind atsine for fat sine, 22; a ridadart for 
fridadart, 32. 

5. The transition oictpgdbmsf into cA £A pA #/* 
c£A bh mh $ f is called aspiration. The typographical marks of 
aspiration in Old Irish are for c and t, an A following (c7&), or an 
Old Greek rough breathing placed over the letter ; for s and f, 
a dot (s). In Modern Irish aspiration is uniformly indicated 
by a dot placed over the letter (c). 

Yowel Sounds. 

6. a o (u) e i are the short a-vowel sounds: alt, educavit, 
Latin alo; canim, I sing, Latin cano; saigim, adeo, Gothic 
sokja; ocht, eight, Latin octo; roth, wheel, Latin rota; muir, 
genitive mora, sea, Latin mare (§ 18); ech, horse, Latin equus ; 
celim, I conceal, Gothic hila; berim, Latin fero; med, mead, 
Greek fxiOv, dligim, debeo, Gothic dulgs, guilt ; midiur, judico, 
Greek fiiSofxat; mil, honey, Latin mel. On e and o standing 
for original i and u see § 21. 

7. i occurs particularly often before nd, run, mb, mm, ng, 
ns : ind-rith, incursus, Old Gaulish Ande-ritum; imb, imm, Greek 
a/x<£t ; imb, butter, Latin unguentum, Sanskrit anjana (accord- 
ing to Stokes) ; inga, nail, Latin unguis ; imbliu, genitive 
imlenn, navel, Greek o^^aXos; lingim, I leap; cingim, I stride; 
mi, genitive mis, month, Latin mensis (§ 74). 

Vowel Sounds. 3 

8. d (6) i are the long a vowel sounds : mdthir, mother, 
Latin mater ; ru rddi, locutus est, Gothic rodjan; imrddi, co- 
gitat, Gothic ga-redan ; gndth, solitus, Greek yvcoros • mar and 
mor, great; ri, genitive rig, king, Latin rex; lin, number; 
linaim, I fill, Latin plenus, Greek ttXy]-; dinu, lamb, Greek 
Oyj-craro ; fir, true, Latin verus, Old High German wdr ; mil, 
beast, Greek firjXov. 

9. e? in the a series originated through compensatory length- 
ening (§74): cet, hundred, Cymric cant, Latin centum; set, path, 
Cymric, hynt, Gothic sinths; ec, death, Cornish ancou, Latin 
nex; ecad, hook, Latin uncus, curved. 

10. i and u answer to the Indo-Germanic i and u (see 
§ 21): fid, tree, Old High German witu, wood; biad, victus, 
Greek ftioTos ; sruih, stream, Sanskrit root sru. In originally 
monosyllabic words u becomes o : no, verbal particle especially 
in the present, Greek w, Gothic nu; so-, Sanskrit su- ; do-, 
Sanskrit dus-, Greek S-us. 

11. e and the thence derived ia (compare the borrowed 
word fial— Latin velum), and di, 6i, commonly de, 6e, are the 
diphthongs of the i-series (Indo-Germanic ai, Sanskrit e) : ad- 

feded, narrabat, ad-fiadat, narrant, Sanskrit veda; deriad, bigae, 
Old Gaulish reda, Old High German reita currus. de and 6e 
interchange in one and the same word : 6en and den, one, Latin 
unus; loeg, calf, Gothic laikan; cloen, iniquus, Gothic Mains, 
Latin clivus, hillock, declinare. It is only in terminal sound 
that the e of diphthong origin is still further attenuated to I: 
di, two, feminine = Sanskrit dve (compare the Lithuanian te-dvi, 
nominative dual feminine, these both). In scian, knife, trian, 
third, triar, three persons, ia is not of diphthong origin, but 
the a belongs to the suffix. On biad and many others see 

12. 6 and the thence derived Ha (compare the borrowed 
word gluass, explanatio = glossa) answer to the Indo-Germanic 


4 /. Phonology. 

au (Sanskrit o); loche, genitive I6chet, lightning, Gothic livr 
hath; tuath, people, Gothic thiuda; 6cht, tiacht, cold, Lithuanian 
duszti, to become cold; 6thad, Haihad, singularitas, Gothic 
authida, solitariness. On 6, ica due to compensatory length- 
ening see § 74, 6 = &, § 8. 

13. au is rare and interchanges with 6; au and 6, ear, 
Gothic auso, Latin auris; nau, genitive n6e, ship, Greek vai;?, 
Latin navit; gau, go, gu, mendacium, falsum. In aue, oa, ua, 
grandchild, au has perhaps originated from av, Latin avus (T), 

14. u* answers to a u of other languages in rUn, secret, Old 
High German rtlna; dun, stronghold, Old Norse tun; du*il, 
elemenfcum, Sanskrit dhuli, dust(?) ; mun, urine, Sanskrit mutra; 
iar cHl, behind (post tergum), Latin cuius. In other cases it 
has probably been derived at a later period through vocalization 
of v and contraction : nice, new, Sanskrit navya, Gothic niujis ; 
clu, renown, Sanskrit gravas ; suit, eye, Cymric haul ancl 
Gothic sauil, sun. 

15. i answers rarely to a long i of other languages: 1%, 
color, splendor, Latin livor ; crithid, emax, Sanskrit root hrl 
(Irish crenim), I buy, Sanskrit krinami. In most words the 
etymology of which is certain i may be traced to an original a 
(§ 8). In single cases i has been created by compensatory 
lengthening (§ 74), or by contraction from ja, je (§ 57). 


16. The clearness of vowels is disturbed by the influence 
which the vowels of neighbouring syllables exercise upon one 
another. The modern Irish rule, "caol le caol, leathan le 
leathan " (slender with slender, broad with broad), exists even 
in Old Irish, though less consistently carried out in writing. 

Infection, 5 

Generally the vowel of the following syllable decides the 
modification or "infectio" (Zeuss) of the vowel of the preceding 
syllable. But there are exceptions, e.g. mdthair, mother, 
brdthair, brother; Old Irish mdthir, brdthir. e and i, of what- 
ever origin, are slender vowels. 

17. Infection by slender vowels is the commonest form. 
In Old Irish, however, it is only without any exception noted 
in writing, when the infixed i or e as vowel of the last syllable 
after the radical vowel has disappeared (§ 88). 

18. The slender vowel either stands (always in the form 
of an i) with the vowel of the preceding syllable or wholly 
supplants that vowel. Thus arises a series of improper diph- 
thongs and triphthongs. 

From a is ai (oi, ei) : mac, son, voc. a maic (for pre-historic 

From a is i: beothu, life, gen. bethad, dat. sg. bethid (for pre- 
historic bivatat-i). 

From a is ui: cechan } cecini, third sg. cechuin (for pre-hist. 

From d is di: faith, vates (for pre-hist. vat-is). 

From e is ei: no beir, fert (for pre-hist. ber-it). 

From e is i: dliged, law, gen. dligid (for pre-hist. dliget-i). 

From e (§ 9) is (ei) eoi, eui: set, path, gen. seuit (for pre-hist. 

From e is ei: feith, sinew, vein (for pre-hist. vet-is). 

From %a is ei, iai: fiach, debitum, nom. pi. fetch (for pre- 
hist. vec-i). 

From o is ui: muir, sea (for pre-hist. mor-i). 

From o is 6i: slog, crowd, nom. pi. slbig (for pre-hist. 

From ua is uai: tuath, folk, dat. sg. tuaith (for pre-hist. 

Fromw isui: rUn, secret, ace. sg. ruin (for pre-hist. run-in). 

From 6e is 6i: n6eb, holy, nom. pi. nbib (for pre-hist. 

6 L Phonology, 

From de is di: cdeck, blind, nom, pi. cdich (for pre-hist. 

19. The particle ro owing to the reduplicative syllable 
often becomes roi ; Old Irish ad-roi-gegrannatar, persecuti 
sunt. This oi often remained after the reduplicative syllable 
had ceased to be used. It was then no longer correctly under- 
stood, and on this account came to be treated as the genuine 
diphthong 6i: ro leblaing, he leaped, roiblaing, roeblaing, raeb- 
laing. In the same way, perhaps, the later caom-nacatar, potue- 
runt, is related through coem- coim-nactar to com-nenactar. 

20. If the infixed vowel is still present, the orthography 
varies in Old Irish: aged or aiged, face; gude or guide, prayer; 
imrddi or imrdidi, cogitat; grene or greine, gen. of grian, sun; 
ingine, gen. of ingen, daughter. 

21. By a (o) the i and u of the preceding syllable are 
transformed to e and o : fer, Latin vir (for pre-hist. vir-as)-,fetar, 
scio (root vid)' } cloth, famous, for pre-hist. clut-as, Grk. kXvtos; 
bond, sole of foot, for pre-hist. bund-as, Lat fundus; sotho, 
gen. sg. of suth, fetus (root su). By a the 6 (derived from ai) 
of the preceding syllable is changed to ia: plan = Lat. poena, 
but gen. pene (borrowed word); iasc, piscis, from pre-hist. 
pesc-as, gen. eisc ; criathar, cribrum, for pre-hist. cretr-a 
(fern.) ; ad-feded, narrabat, ad-fiadat, narrant (root vid). It is 
rare for i to have become ia, owing to an introduced a: miastar, 
judicabit, midiur, judico. 

22. u (p) of whatever origin often joins in Old Irish as u 
or o the vowel of the preceding syllable or assimilates that 
vowel to itself. Thus arise the false diphthongs an, iu, eo, eu: 
fiur dat. sg. of fer vir, for prehist. vir~u ; do-biur and do-bur 
I give, for prehist. -ber-u; ceneul, ceniul dat. of centt kind, for 
prehist. cenetl-u; imb-rddud cogitatio, for prehist. rddiat-us ; 
ulc dat. of olc malum, for prehist. olc-u ; eochu ace. pi. of 
ech equus ; laigiu and (after suppression of the i, §26) lugu 

Other changes of the Vowels. 7 

minor. Sometimes also other vowels as a e i o e are influenced : 
laeochu ace. pi. of laech hero. 

23. Infection by u is often absent in Old Irish : bith 
world, for prehist. bit-us, Old Gaulish Bitu-riges ; rith run, for 
prehist. rit-us ; fid tree, for prehist. vid-us, Old High German 
witu ; il much, for prehist. pil-u, Gothic filu ; especially in 
the infinitive in ad of the II conjug. e.g. carad to love, for an 
original carajat-us. With fiss knowledge, for prehist. vidt-us, 
stands the compound cubus conscientia, that is con-fius. 

24. It is only in the later language that io, io, ea, and 6 a 
(eu) (for the Old Irish i, i, e and the e of § 9) are added to the 
improper diphthongs of Old Irish, in cases where a broad vowel 
actually follows or once followed those vowels. Modern Irish 
each, steed ; fear, man ; cead or ceud, hundred ; Moth, world ; 
fior, true ; feargach, angry ; for Old Irish, ech, fer, cet, bith, fir, 

Other Changes of the Vowels. 

25. Long vowels in the (unaccentuated) suffix-syllables of 
words of more than one syllable become shortened : bethad gen. 
sg. of beothu life, for prehistoric bivatat-as, answers to the Greek 
l3iOTrjTO<s ; tuatha, nom. pi. of tiXath people, answers to the 
Gothic thiudos. In forms such as berit, ferunt, for prehist. 
berant-i; the n perhaps disappeared without compensatory 
lengthening. In composition even long radical syllables 
become shortened; ceimm gradus, to-chaimm, -chim the march: 
in the same way air-mitiu honor proves the existence of a 
simple *metiu, Latin mentio. As the long accent is often left 
out in manuscripts, or is indistinguishable in them, it is not 
safe without further evidence to reckon on the shortness of a 
vowel from the absence of the long accent. 

26. The short or shortened vowels of median syllables of 
words of three or more syllables may be suppressed : cunutgim 

8 I. Phonology. 

I build, for con-ud-tegim, Latin tego, tectum; etir-dibnim 
interimo, for di-benim, Homeric ttc^vc ; cechnatar cecinerunt, for 
cecanatar ; toipnitar pepulerunt, for do-sefannatar (do-sephainn 
pepulit) ; tuistiu generatio with do-fui-semar generatur for 
do-fo-sitiu (see § 45 and § 25) ; fo-ddli distribuit, 3 pi. ni fodlat 
non discernunt. 

27. On the other hand there is a certain inconsistency of 
the vowels in another direction : besides air-dire, ir-dirc, con- 
spicuus, are also found ar^, aur-, ur-dirc; in the same way besides 
air-lam ready, also aur-, ur-lam and so forth. In suffix syllables 
o, a, u interchange especially before r, I, n, m, Gonchobor, Con- 
chobur; cor cor, corcar, cor cur, purple; forcital, forcitul, precept; 
denom, denam, denum to do, and so on. 

28. An inclination for certain vowel -sequences distinct 
from the "infectio" § 16, founded either upon assimilation or 
dissimilation, is also found. It is most obvious in the trans- 
formation of foreign words; u-a as cubad = Latin cubitum; 
rustack = Tua,tin.rusticus; umal= Latin humilis; cubachail— Latin 
cubiculum; putar = Latin putor; sdupar = Latin stupor; e-a as 
ennach = Latin innocens; credal = Latin credulus; espartain — 
Latin vespertina. Thus is explained e. g. nom, drui, gen. druad 
in the face of unfile, gen. filed (§ 134). In other cases i-u or 
e-o show a certain affinity to one another : lebor or libur= Latin 
liber ; circul or cercol = Latin circulus : and in genuine Irish 
words : biu or beo living, do-biur I give, con-riug I tie, but 
ateoch I pray; donfiur to the man, but dond eoch to the horse; 
firu viros, but eocho equos; dogniu facio, but do-gneo faciam, 
and many others. 


29. The Old Irish c (ch § 59) answers to the two Indo- 
Germanic k sounds; cu hound, Sanskrit gvd; crabud faith, Skr. 
vi-grambha trust; do-ro-chair cecidit, ir-chre interitus, Skr. 
root gar break to pieces ; cruim worm, Skr. krimi; crenim I 

Consonants. 9 

buy, Skr. krindmi; techim I run, flee, Skr. root tdk, takta 
shooting thither, Lithuan. teku flow, run. As to Irish c for g 
see § 67. 

30. g answers to the Indo-Germanic g and gh: ro-genar 
natus sum, Grk. yeyvrjfiat ; liaig physician, Gothic leikeis ; gdir 
shout, to-gairm call, for-con-gur prsecipio, Grk. yfjpvs, Skr. 
gir voice, root gar, grinati to call ; gegon vulneravi, Skr. ja- 
ghana; agur timeo, Grk. axopu; ligim I lick, ligur tongue, 
Grk. Xct^co. (As to Irish g for c, ch see § 62.) 

31. b also often corresponds to an Indo-Germanic g; ben 
woman, Grk. yvvq ) biu, beo living, Grk. /3io$, Skr. jiva ; broo, 
br6 millstone, gen. broon, Skr. gravan; at-bail he dies, Old 
Saxon qual he died ; bo cow, Greek fiovs, Skr. gaus. 

32. t (th § 59) corresponds to a radical t) temel darkness, 
Skr. tamas; tdm death, tathaim died, Skr. root tarn, tamyati 
to lose breath, pass away ; traig foot, Grk. Tp£x°> > tor and 
thunder, Cymr. taran, Lat. tonitru; tuath people, Goth, thiuda. 
As to Irish t for d see § 67. 

33. d answers to the Indo-Germanic d and dh; deich ten, 
Latin decern; sude seat, Skr. sadas ; bodar deaf, Skr. badhira; 
dinu lamb, Grk. OtJo-olto; ruad ruddy, Goth, rauds; dUil ele- 
mentum, Skr. dhuli dust (1). As to Irish d for original t, th 
see § 60. 

34. b answers to the Indo-Germanic bh: Mi fuit, Skr. 
root bhu; bldth blossom, Gothic bloma. As to b for original 
g see § 31, br, bl for mr, ml see § 41, b for v § 45. 

35. j?asa single sound appears with the exception of some 
words of obscure origin (e.g. patu hare) in borrowed words 
only : apstal, Latin apostolus; plan, Latin poena ; prim-, Latin 
primus. In Irish words p sometimes stands for b, in order to 
indicate the unaspirated pronunciation of the media. Thus after 
r and I: com-arp% coheredes; Alpa and Alba, North Britain. In 
composition p occurs where an assimilation of a terminal dental 
and an initial b has taken place; adopart obtulit for aith-odbart ; 

10 I. Phonology. 

topur fons for do-od-bur. In terminal sound p stands for b in 
mutilated forms of Hu I am ; rop for ro-ba, but also roptdr for 
ro-batar. The Irish p never answers to an Indo-Germanic p. 

36. The Indo-Germanic p has disappeared in Irish : athir, 
father, Latin pater; Idr, floor, Anglo-Sax. flbr ; ibim, I drink, Skr. 
pibami; etar, invenitur, Qoth.. fintha; tess, heat for tepest-us, Skr. 
tapas; nia, gen. niad nephew, Latin nepos; suan, sleep, Skr. 
svapna. Original pt is expressed by cht as ; secht seven, Latin 
septem ; necht niece, Latin neptis ; socht silence, Middle High 
Ger. swift silent, Grk. aua-rrr] (?). Schuchardt remarks that in 
words borrowed from the Latin through the Cymric, p is repre- 
sented by c, corcur purpura, case Pascha. 

37. The guttural nasal is only found before g : com-boing 
confringit, Skr. bhanga, root bhanj, inga nail, Latin unguis. 

38. The dental n answers to the Indo-Germanic n : nocht 
naked, Goth, naquaths; c&ehtar ndthar, uterque nostrum ; ainm 
name, Gr. ovofxa ; andl breath, Gr. avefxos. 

39. In suffix-syllables an nn or nd is often found where a 
single n might have been expected ; anmand, nom. pi. of ainm 
nomen ; gobann, gen. sg. of goba smith ; Erenn, gen. sg. of 
Eriu Ireland; also salann, salt; torann, thunder; croicend, 
hide, and many others. In the Modern Irish iarann iron for 
the Old Irish iarn, nn has been developed after an epenthetic 
vowel. In the borrowed words, cucenn, cucann kitchen = Latin 
coquina, i persaind = Latin in persona, nn, has been developed 
after accented vowels which were long in Latin. This intensi- 
fying of the nasal may be connected with the accentuation 
(whether the tone be full or secondary), still it must be ancient, 
for it appears in the Old Gaulish name Gobannitio which surely 
belongs to the Irish goba, gen. gobann. Note the difference 
between cti hound, gen. con, and brio womb, gen. brond. 

40. m answers to the Indo-Germanic m: menme, mind, Skr. 
manman; melim, I grind up, Latin molo ; fo-imim, foemaim, I 
receive ; ar-fo-imim, suscipio, Latin emo, sumo. 

Consonants. 11 

41. For mr, ml in initial sound (m)br, (m)bl are used : 
Old Irish mrecht later brecht pied, Lith. mdrgas pied; bligim, I 
milk, Old High German melchan; 6n mlith atritione Ml. 23 a 20, 
later do bleith, blith, inf. of melim, Latin molo ; cf. arindi 
mblegar quia mulgetur. 

42. The nasals disappear before the tenues and s, usually 
with lengthening of the preceding vowel (§ 74) : det tooth, 
Cymr. dant, Skr. danta; brec, brecc lie, Skr. bhramga to fall, to 
deviate, to lose the way; lecim I leave, Latin linquo ; mi 
month , g. misy Latin mensis. In the borrowed word if em = 
Latin infernum the nasal disappears before f The lengthening 
is absent in unaccented syllables; berit ferunt, for prehist. 
berant-i ; car a friend, gen. carat ; brdge neck, gen. brdgat (sufF. 
ant); air-itiu receptio (air-ema suscipiat) for em-tiu, Lat. emtio 
cf. § 25 ; 6ac youth, Cymr. ieuanc, Lat. juvencus ; do-anac, 
tdnac veni, Skr. dnamqa. It seems as if the lengthening of 
the a o or u was never practised where a nasal had disappeared : 
muc, mucc pig, Cymr. moch, for munc-a, Greek jjlvkttJp, snout, 
ano-fivcro-a) I snort, Skr. root muc, muficati to set free; oc at, 
ocus, Cymr. agos vicinus, for one- one-, Goth, nehva near, 
nehvundja the next, Old High German ndh 9 ndho; crocenn 
hide, for crane- (Skr. hruncati to bend 3), Old STorse hryggr 
back (St. hrugja), Old High German hrucki. 

43. r and I answer to the r and I of European languages : 
sruaim stream, Grk. pevfta; rigim I reach, Grk. opeya); ad-con- 
darc conspexi, Skr. dadarga, Grk. SeSopKa; daur oak, Grk. 
S6pv t Goth, triu tree ; lenim adhaereo, Skr. lindmi, Latin lino ; 
lige bed, Grk. Xe^os, Goth, ligan; luath swift, Mam celox, Grk. 
irXzviia ; cM fame, Grk. icAeos ; at-luchur budi I thank, perhaps 
the Latin loquor ; gelim consumo, Skr. gilati. 

44. fin initial sound takes the place of the Indo-Germanic 
v, an unaccented spirant for an accented : Jiche, gen. fichet 
twenty, Latin viginti; fini cognati, Old H. G. wini friend ; 

frass shower, Skr. varsha; froech, fraech heather, Grk. iptUr] ; 

12 I. Phonology. 

flaitk lordsliip, Cymr. gwlad (stem vlati, valti, whilst the Goth. 
valda, Ksl. vlada points to a radical form valdh). 

45. For the Indo- Germanic v there also appears b in 
initial sound before r and I: bran raven, Ksl. vranu, Lith. varnas; 
leblaing he leaped, perfect of lingim. In the perfect only a 
trace of the original initial v is perceptible, Skr. valg. f and b 
(later bh) change in the initial sound of the possessive pro- 
nouns far n- 9 bar n- your (cf. Goth, iz-vara), and the enclitic 
affixed -b you, appears in d4ib you, lib with you, cf. Skr. vas. 
As to the change of/ and 8 in initial sound, see §56. 

46. The following appear to be isolated cases of an original 
v dropped in initial sound : lingim I leap (§ 45) ; oland wool, 
Cymr. gulan, Goth, vulla, Skr. urna (perhaps the accent was 
on the second syllable). The (proclitic) preposition fri contra, 
loses its f in Middle Irish. 

47. In median sound an original v after single accented 
consonants is expressed by b (later bh) : tarb bull, Old Gaulish 
tarvos; marb dead, Old High German marawer mellow; berbaim 
I boil, Latin ferveo ; delb form, Cymr. delw ; fedb widow, Latin 
vidua. It has disappeared in ech horse, Skr. agva; also, per- 
haps, in dess dexter, Cymr. deheu, Goth, taihsva; drd high, 
Latin arduus. 

48. b (later bh) also appears for /in composition after the 
preposition co(n) which loses its nasal: fossad firm (Skr. root 
vas), cobsud stabilis; fine cognatus, coibnes affinitas; cobeden 
conjugatio; cobdelach cognatus (for con- fed-, -fad-), Goth, ga- 
vidan to tie up, ga-vadjon to betroth; fiss knowledge, cubus 

49. Between vowels the Indo-Germanic v has either been 
dropped as in : dia, gen. de God, Skr. deva ; dead finis, Cymr. 
diwedd; tana tenuis, Cymr. teneu, Grk. ravaos, Skr. tanu; 
mogai nom. pi. of mug servus, for a prehistoric mogav-es: or 

Consonants. 13 

vocalized : nice new, Gothic niujis, Skr. navy a; cM fame, Skr. 
gravas, Grk. k\4os; do, cM nail, Latin clavus ; biu, beo living, 
j&'os, Skr. jiva, c£. ho Duid of David, Ml. 14 b 8. 

50. s in initial sound answers to the Indo- Germanic s : 
samail likeness, Latin similis ; sen old, Latin senex; scdth 
shadow, Goth, skadus ; sndm swim, Skr. root sna; sruth 
stream, Skr. root sru; fo-sligim delino, Skr. root sarj, srijati 
to pour out (?). 

51. Before t in initial sound s regularly disappears : tia~ 
gaim I go, Grk. <tt€ix<» ', tech house, Grk. crreyos ; tdu I am, Lith. 
stoju; tibim I laugh, Grk. tcl<£os, Lith. stebeti-s to be surprised. 

52. Single s between vowels disappears: t6 dumb, Skr. root 
tushytushnim; doroigu elegit, for do-ro-gegu,Goth.Musa ; to dam 
cloathar qui me audiat, Old High German hlosen; dl proles, 
alacht gravid, Old H. G. fasel proles (Stokes) ; beri thou bearest 
for beres-i, Skr. bharasi; tige, gen. sg. of tech house, for pre- 
historic steges-as, Grk. orcyeos. 

53. s between consonants has disappeared ; echtar without, 
Latin extra; tart thirst, Skr. root tars h. 

54. s or ss in median or in terminal sound has arisen by 
assimilation from ks ; as dess to the right, Latin dexter ; from 
gs: as -tias I shall go, fut. of tiagaim, Grk. <rr€i£<o; from ts as 
contotsat 3 pi. fut. of tuitim I fall (that is to-thitim, -titim for 
tetim that is do-etim adeo, from et- for pent, Goth, jintha, Skr. 
root pat); from ds: a&fessur sciam, root vid; from st: as acsin to 
see for ad-castio, root cas (cf. Skr. caksh for cakas); brissim 
I break, Old H. G. brestan; less- in less-ainm nickname, less-mac 
stepson, Old H. G. lastar abuse, scorn, Grk. XdaOr} (l);.ocus near, 
for prehist. ancast-us ; from dt : as fiss knowledge, for prehist. 
mdt-us ; from tt as ind-risse, invasus for rit-te § 354 b . 

55. Before sc in initial sound the consonant of the ter- 
minal sound of the root is lost : mesc ebrius, Skr. mada drunk- 
enness; lesc piger, Goth, lats Lzy(?); usee water, Skr. udaka; 

14 L Phonology. 

nasc band, ring; nascim I bind, Skr. root nab, Latin necto ; 
com-mescatar miscentur, Old H. G. miskan, Skr. migra, Grk. 
fjLLyvvfu (original root mig); miscais bate, Skr. root mith, to 
reproacb, jatoreo). 

56. s and f change in initial sound, where sv originally 
existed : siur and fiur sister, Skr. svasar; sollus and follus 
clear, Skr. root svar; suan sleep, and feotar (for fefotar perf.) 
they slept, Skr. root svap; do-sefainn, -sephainn, pi. do-sefnatar, 
perf. of do-sennim I drive, bunt, Irisb root svand (Skr. sudl). 
In borrowed words in tbe initial sound a Latin/* is represented 
by s : Irisb srian = Latin frenum ; Irish senister = Latin 
fenestra. Schucbardt remarks that the words in which this 

change is found have in many cases come into use in Irish 
through the Cymric and not directly from the Latin. 

57. The Indo-Germanic j has disappeared in initial sound : 
oac, 6c youth, Cymr. ieuanc Latin juvencus; aig ice, Cymr. 
ia, Old Norse jokull glacier. The j is in rare cases vocalized : 
ie salus, icaim I heal, Cymr. iach healthy; in the same way 
Isu Jesus. 

58. In median sound j has disappeared : fdiho gen. of 
fdith seer, for prehistoric vataj-as (os f) : tdu I am, for pre- 
historic stdju, Lith. st6ju; no charu I love, for prehistoric 
cara-u, caraj-o; cle, Cymr. cledd, to the left, appears to stand 
for clija, Goth. Mei-duma the left hand. 


59. c and t become ch and th by aspiration, if they stand 
between vowels or originally did so: loche lightning, Goth. 
lauhrnuni ; loch lake, Latin lacus; fiach debt, fechem debitor, 
Goth, veihs holy; brdthir brother, Latin /rater; catli battle, 
Old H. G. hadu. Thus also ct becomes cht: oct and ocht eight; 
red and recht right. 

60. d (later dh) is made use of for th after an unaccented 
vowel, especially in terminal sound and in suffixes : her id he 

Aspiration. 15 

bore, Skr. bharati; lecud inf. of lecim I leave, suffix -tu; beothu 
life, gen. bethad, suffix -tat, Grk. /Siot^t-os. In median sound 
the method of writing varies, d is the rule before slender 
vowels: ni agathar non timet; firfidir verum fiet. Sometimes 
d is also used in radical terminal sound under the influence 
of slender vowels : maided clades, Skr. root math. 

61. d for t is also found in the initial sound of single 
little words which are used proclitically : do thy, do brdthir thy 
brother, but after elision of the o : th* athair thy father; dar 
over, Latin trans, but by suffixing the enclitic pronoun to 
the now accented preposition, tairis over him, tairsiu over 

62. g is only used for ch after slender, unaccented vowels : 
cathir town, gen. cathrach, dat. cathrig ; udllach arrogans, 
ualligim sum arrogans. In the same way; sudigim I sit, from 
sude seat (the intermediate sudech does not occur). 

63. In the terminal sound of words of one syllable (ending 
the radical syllable) ch is so much liked, that in this case it 
even answers to an original g (Indo-Germanic g or gh) : Old Irish 
teg and tech, later only tech house (gen. tige), Grk. riyos; scdig 
and scdich praeteriit, Old Saxon skok; tor-mach auctio, Skr. 
root mah; immach out, from mag plain. 

64. If th comes to stand directly after I n or s, after sup- 
pression of the preceding vowel, then the aspiration does not 
take place : relad manifestatio (suffix -tu), gen. relto; cumsanad 
quies, gen. cumsanto; cesad passio, gen. cesto. Sometimes t 
takes the place of two dentals which have come together after 
suppression of a vowel : adfet for adfeded; foitir mittitur, for 
fbidithir. In the same way coica fifty stands for cdicecha. 

65. The unaspirated tenuis after a vowel is found in 
median sound, if a nasal (§ 42) or a liquid (§ 79) originally 
went before it, besides certain cases of coalescence in the com- 
position of words (§ 73). In a few cases a prehistoric qu = Brit. 
p appears to be represented by c or cc, e. g. in mac, mace, gen. 

16 I. Phonology. 

maqi, Old Cymr. map. The etymology of many other words 
which might here be considered is not fully determined. 

66. After consonants the tenuis in Old Irish is firm in the 
groups cht, rt, It, re, Ic, sc: recht right; gort garden, Latin /tor- 
tus; ro alt educatus est; marc horse, Old H. G. marah; sere 
love; ofcmalus; mesc ebrius. The firmness is often expressed 
by doubling the letter, olee, mescc, and so on. 

67. In the same way the media is firm after r and I : drd 
high, Latin arduus; garg rough; serg illness, Old Sax. swerkan 
become dark, sad. The media in this situation is also often 
written double drdd, gargg, or expressed by the tenuis /erg, 

fere wroth, Greek opyq, Skr. urj strength; orcun caedere, 
frith-orgun offendere, Old Gatilish Orgeto-rix, Skr. righdyati to 
rageC?); cerd and cert trade, artist, Latin cerdo, Grk. KcpSos; 
com-arpi coheredes, Goth, arbja. 

68. Aspiration early came into use in pronunciation with 
b, d, g, and m, between vowels (bh, dh, gh, mh), but first finds 
written expression in later manuscripts. The first trace is to 
be found in words borrowed from the Latin where b between 
vowels is rendered by m (bh pronounced as mh, § 3) ; am-prom, 
Latin improbus; mebuir, Latin memoria. The next is that in 
Middle Irish b is written for m between vowels; mebaid he 
broke, pi. 3 mebdatar, for Old Irish memaid, memdatar. The 
last is that mh is written for bh: claidlieamh, sword, for Old 
Irish claideb. 


69. As to the change of Jcs, gs, ts, ds, st, tt, dt into ss, s, 
see § 54. sm changes to mm, later m (never mh): druimm, 
druim back, for prehistoric drosm-e, Latin dorsum, si changes 
to 11: coll corylus, Old H. G. hasala; giall hostage, Old H. G. 
gtsal, Cornish guistel. rs changes to rr\ tarrach timid, Skr. 

Assimilation. 17 

70. nd changes to nn and mb to mm, m: ad-greinn perse- 
quit ur, Old Slavonian greda; mennat dwelling, Skr. mandira 
dwelling; imb, imm, im about, Grk. d/Acfri; imbliu, gen. imlenn 
navel, Grk. o/x,<£aAos; in Modern Irish m is written for mm, 
whilst an original single m has become mh. As to the 
assimilation of ngm and ndm to mm, m see § 76. 

71. In changes to 11: Old Irish com-alnaim impleo, later 
com-allaim, with corn-all praegnans, Goth, fulls, Skr. root par, 
prindmi, puma; collo for colno, gen. of colinn flesh; Id changes 
to 11: meldach gratus, later mellach; accaldam discourse, later 
accallam; ildatu quantity, later illatu ; mall slow, Grk. fipaSvs ; 
caill, colli wood, Old S. holt. The gradual preponderance of 
the I is indicated by the written forms melltach, illdathach 
many-coloured (il-dathach), and the inclination to pronounce the 
I with especial force before a following dental is also shown in 
the orthography ni cheilitis they concealed. Even bid is thus 
assimilated : dlind pretty, compar. Old Irish dildiu, later dittiu, 
dilli, dille. A solitary case is lb to II: Hall superbia, gen. 
Hailbe, Haille. 

72. rnd is assimilated to rr : cruind round (for curind), 
compar. cuirre, cuirrither (for curind-iu, -ither). It deserves 
note that sometimes (in Lebor na huidhri) rd is written for rn 
in words in which an assimilation has not taken place, e. g. 
iferd for if em — Latin infernum ; card for cam. In such cases 
d is a contraction for nd = mi, since ifernd occurs. 

73. The final t (th) or d of prepositions is in composition 
assimilated to the following consonantal initial sound: frith- 
gart becomes frecart respondit; adbeir dicit (prep, aith-), 
past epert dixit ; ad-glddur appello, inf. accallam ; aith-od-bart 
becomes adopart obtulit ; ad-daimet and ataimet profitentur ; 
ad-ciu becomes acciu (besides adchiu, atchiu). 

74. The vowels d, e, i, ua, 6 are due to disappearance 
of a consonant with compensatory lengthening. Thus every 

I. G. 2 

18 I. Phonology. 

explosive sound is lost before a following liquid, guttural and 
dental before a following nasal. As to the disappearance of the 
nasal before c, t, s see § 42. 

dw$ battalion, Latin . agmen, examen; dr clades, Cymr. aer 
(points to agr-} ; mdl prince, cf. Old Cymric proper names as 
Seno-magti (gen.- in an inscription) ; ddl assembly, Old Cymr. 
datl forum ; sdl heel, Cymr. sawdl ; anal breath, Cymr. anadl ; 

fen wagon, Old Norse v'agn ;■ der tear, Grk. SaKpv; en bird, 
Old Cymr. etn, Latin penna ; cenel kind, Old Cymr. cenetl ; 

mi inonth, gen. mis, Latin mensis ; cis vectigal = Latin 
census, rent ;• 

Han lamb, Latin agnus; btiaiii harvest, inf. of bongaim 
I harvest (break), Skr. bhanga ; cuala audivi, Skr. qucrava ; 

sron nose (points to srogn)' } doroni fecit, doronad factum 
est for do-ro-gni, do-ro-gniad. 

The following show an abnormal transformation : con-goite 
part, compunctus; to gaet past pass, was killed, of gonaim 

75. Td this place belong the perfect and future forms 
which are characterized by an <T: genar natus sum for gegn-, 
Grk. yiyvrjfxat; do-ber dabo for bebr-. In these tenses other 
combinations of consonants are" treated in the same way : menar 
putavi for menln-, $kr. Merit i$ in-geb cOmprehendam for gegb-. 

76. Assimilation of the cbnrsonani) before m and at the same 
time lengthening of the preceding vowel are introduced in the 
formation of the neuter nomina actionis in man from radical 
syllables in ng, nd : leimm to leap, leap, to lingim I leap, for 
lengm-e {-en 1) ; ceimm to walk, step, from ciftgim I stride, for 
cengm-e; greimm progressus to in-grennifn persequor, for 
grendm-e; In the same way is formed btimm, beim to beat, 
blow, from benim I beat. 

77. In' composition, wlrere the accent advances to the first 
syllable of the word the length of the vowel is given up : 
tochimm, tochaim to march, from ceimm; in-greimm, in-grimm 
to pursue, from greimm ; in the same way fo-glaim to learn 

Metathesis, 19 

from fo-gliurm disco ; tb-tliim (later but less correct tuitim) to 
fall, to tuitim I fall (§ 54), -thim for do-eimm, eimm for entm-e, 
root jea£, nasalized j»e?i2. 

78. Certain groups of consonants are separated by intro- 
duction of a vowel if they happened to be at the end of a word 
after the disappearance of the last syllable. This is particularly 
the case with the mn derived from bn : omun fear, ess-amin fear- 
less, cf. Old Gaulish Exobnus ; domun world, cf. Old Gaulish 
jDubno-rix; tamun stem, Old S. stamn, Old H. G. stam, and with 
the tr of the suffix tra : criathar sieve, Old H. G. riterd, Latin 
cribrum; arathar plough, Grk. aporpov ; briathar word, Grk. 
fpdrpa (I). 

The Old Irish iarn iron becomes later iarann. Perhaps 
olan, oland wool (§ 46) may be explained in the same way, 
cf. Skr. urna, Goth, vulla. The inclination to split up com- 
binations of consonants is strongly developed in Modern Irish. 
O'Donovan (Irish Gr. pp. 57 and 58) gives the pronunciation 
of : dluth as doluth, bolg as bottog, borb as borob, garg as gardg, 
com as corron. Examples of similar written forms are to be 
found in the Book of Lecan (see Windisch, Irish Texts, 
p. -84). Nevertheless this pronunciation cannot be old at least 
as regards Ig, rg, rb, cf. § 67. 


79. Metathesis sometimes occurs with and sometimes 
without lengthening of the vowel. (1) With lengthening of 
the vowel : Idm hand, Latin palma ; Ian full (for pain = all in 
corn-all praegnans), Gothic fulls, Sanskrit puma ; brdge neck, 
Latin gurges ; cndim bone, Greek kvtjjjly), Old High German 
hamma hind leg; ad-glddur appello, infinitive accaldam. (2) 
Without lengthening of the vowel : bligim I milk, Old High 
German melchan ; dligim I owe, Gothic dulgs ; cruim worm, 
genitive croma, Lithuanian kirmele ; srub snout, Latin sorbeo ; 
cride heart, Greek KapSla, Lithuanian szirdis ) fliuch wet, beside 

folcaim humecto ; fr, fl. frequently arise thus in initial sound : 


20 /. Phonology. 

frith versus, root vart ; frass shower, Sanskrit varsha | fiaiih 
sway, originally valt-is. When the combinations re, Ic are broken 
up by metathesis c remains unaspirated : du-thracair voluit 
connected with du-fw-tharcair, Skr. root tark, tarhayati to 
imagine, to remember to do something, tuaslucud resolutio 
beside tuasulcud (do-fo-od-saleiud). 

80. Besides the above cases of metathesis which are in 
part common to all Celtic languages there are others which are 
first perceived in Later and Modern Irish. Old Irish baitsim 
I baptize (from baithis baptism), Later Irish baistim,, baisdim; 
Old Irish eitsim I hear, Later Irish eistim, eisdim; Old Irish 
do acsin to see, Later Irish do aiscin ; Old Irish belre speech, 
Modern Irish beurla. 


81. Similar vowels or vowels assimilated to one another 
which, owing to the disappearance of a consonant, have become 
directly contiguous might be contracted to one long vowel if one 
of them was accented (especially the first) ; dead finis, Cymr. 
diwedd, whence dedenach finalis; tee hot fur tepe (Latin tepens) 
becomes te, nom. pi. teit; lathe day already in Old Irish 
laa, Id ; ad-chiu I see, for -cisiu, Skr. root caksh (f r. cakas) ; biid 
gen. of biad victus becomes bid; broo, brb millstone, gen. 
broon, br6n y Skr. grdvan. 

82. Dissimilar vowels, which were not assimilated to one 
another, remain side by side and often count in verses as two 
syllables, e.g. biad victus for bivat-am, Grk. fiioTos. In like 
manner, perhaps after loss of a consonant, the following are 
dissyllabic; iach (Hy. 5. 72) immedon iach in a salmon's belly; 
niad (Hy. 5. 71), gen. oinia hero, warrior. 

83. If neither of the two vowels was accented, one of 
them, most likely the first, was simply suppressed ; Old Irish 
carid amat (a form like the Sanskrit sukhayati he rejoices) 
goes back through car'-ati to cara-ati, caraj-ati as for-chon- 
grimm praecipio is contracted from for-chon-garimm. In the 

Terminal Sound, 21 

same way no char a am at (of the conjoined flexion) does not 
go back to a contracted form carat , but stands for cara-at, with 
loss of the last syllable according to the rule of termination. 

84. In the same way contraction is not to be assumed 
where an original ia is represented by e : cride heart stands for 
prehist. cridi-am, e is the mutation of i due to a following a 
(as in for for prehist. vir-as) and the syllable am has dis- 
appeared according to the rule of termination. In the same 
way the e in no guidem we pray may be explained for a pre- 
hist. godiam-as. 

85. It is a form of absorption when e and a disappear 
after 6 or u : 6ac (dissyllabic Serclige Concul 37. 14, Old 
Cymr. ieuanc, Latin juvencus) youth, becomes 6c ; aue grandson 
becomes 6, H, through 6a, im' } ntie new (Skr. navy a) becomes wd. 

Terminal Sound. 

86. Comparison with the allied languages teaches that 
numerous Irish word-forms have lost a syllable at the end, and 
Irish itself affords ground, in many cases, for the determination 
of how these syllables were sounded before they were lost. The 
prehistoric word-forms thus inferred are by no means Indo- 
Germanic primary forms, but stand in the process of individual- 
izing language, at the same stage as the corresponding Latin 
and Greek forms. The traces of the lost syllable appear in Irish 
in two directions, viz. in the preceding syllable of the same word 
and in the initial sound of the following word. 

87. The vowel of the last syllable was introduced in the 
preceding syllable and has affected the vowel of that syllable 
as shown § 16 et seq. The alteration of the short a of the 
last syllable to e or i can be clearly perceived but not so the 
alteration of the a to o. The short o, before the syllable was 
lost, was either not sharply distinguished from a short a ; or 
it has only produced effect as a short a upon the vowel of the 
preceding syllable. Traces of the alteration perhaps are to be 


/. Phonology. 

found in the most ancient genifcive-forms of stems in i, u, and 
n : fdith vates, gen. fdtho for vataj-os ; suth fetus, gen. sotho 
for sutav-os; brithem judge, gen. brithemon for briteman-os. 
The nominative Corpimaquas (whence the Corbmac, Cormac of 
the manuscripts) from an Old Irish Ogham inscription, may be 
put forward against assuming the alteration. The numerous 
Old Gaulish nominatives in os (e.g. tarvos, Old Irish tarb bull) 
correspond only for the area of the Old Gaulish language. 

88. The following table, without claiming to be complete, 
demonstrates how the vowels of the last syllable are treated 
in Irish : 


Prehistoric Irish. 


, i 









Voc. Sg. a mate son for maqu-e, Greek 
<pl\e, Latin amic-e: Norn. Du. da druid 
two soothsayers for druid-e, Grk. 
Mavr-e: 2 Sg. Imperat. heir for ber-e, 
Grk. 0fye, Latin ag-e: 2 PI. Imperat. 
berid for beret-e, Grk. (ptper-e, Latin 
agit-e: 3 Sg. Perf. cechuin cecinit 
for cecan-e, Grk. ytyov-e: coic five 
for quenqu-e, Latin quinqu-e, Greek 

Nom. Sg. fer man for vir-as, Greek 
\\jk-os, Latin lup-us : Gen. Sg. mdthar 
for matar-as, Grk. /mrjrp-ds, Old Latin 
Vener-us : fdtho (later fdtho) poetae 
for vataj-os, Grk. woXe-as: Nom. Sg. 
teg, tech house (Modern Irish teach) 
for teg-as, Grk. riy-os, Latin gen-usi 
do-beram damus for beram-as, Latin 
agi-mus: 2 Sg. Perf. cechan cecinisti 
for cecan-as, Grk. 7^70^-as. 

Nom. PI. carit amici for car-ant-es, Grk. 
<ptpoi>T-es: teoir Fern, three for tesor-es, 
Skr. tisr-as : 2 Sg. Pres. do-beir thou 
givest for ber-is, Grk. tyep-es, Latin 
agis, cf. ti#£ houses for teg-es-a, Grk. 
riy-e-a., Latin gen-er-a. 

Nom. and Ace. Sg. N. nemed n- holy- 
place, for nemet-an, Old Gaulish pe/*?/- 
rov, Grk. fiirp-ov, Latin jug-um : Ace. 
Sg. /e?* w- for vir-an, Grk. Xvk-op, Latin 

Ace. Sg. menmain n- mentem for mene- 
man-en: brdthirn- for brater-en, Latin 
fratr-em (Grk..7rar^o-a). 

Terminal Sound. 









Prehistoric Irish. 
en, in 

er, lr 

et, it 


er, lr 


ons, os 


noi n- nine for non-en, Latin nov-e-m 
(Grk. evvta) : deich n- ten for dec-en, 
Latin dec-em (Grk. oV/ca) : Nom. and 
Ace. Sg. N. ainm name for anm-en, 
Latin nom-en (or for anm-e, Skr. 
ndm-a, cf. § 100). 

eter, etir between, Latin inter, Skr. 
antar: Voc. Sg. a brdthir brother, 
Grk. (3 irdrep. 

3 Sg. Pres. do-beir dat for &er-ta, Grk. 
tyep-e, Latin ag-it. 

Nom. Sg. F. iwat/i people, Latin mens-a, 
Grk. x&p- a i Gk>th. thiud-a: Nom. Du. 
M. and N. da /er two men for dvd 
vir-a, Grk. 5uo tirir-w, Latin du-0: 
Nom. PI. N. gran for grdn-a, Latin 
gran-a, Grk. fitrp-a : 1 Sg. Conj. er-bar 
dicam for (ass-rw-) &er-a, Ved. stav-d 
I will praise: Nom. Sg. fiaithem 
prince for valtim-a, Skr. brahm-d. 

1 Sg. Pres. as-biur dico for oer-w, Z)<??*-o, 
Lat. fer-o, Gr. <p£p-w : no rddiu loquor 
for radio, Latin /m</io : Nom. Sg. air- 
mitiu reverentia for mentio, Lat. men- 

Nom. PL F. tuatha for tdtiis, Goth. 
thiudos: 2 Sg. Conj, Pres. as-bere, 
-berce, -bera dicas for oeras, Latin /eras, 
Skr. bhards. 

Gen. PI. of all declensions /er w- for vir- 
an, Grk. fe-wp, Latin de-um, Goth* 
/s&-e : tuath n- for tot-an, Goth, thiudo : 
brdthar n- for brdtar-an, JjoX.fratr-um, 
Grk. irarip-cov, Goth, brothr-e : fdithae, 
fdithe prophetarum for vdtej-am, Grk. 
iroke-uv (from Irish alone the length 
of the a cannot be inferred; beside 
brdthar also brdthre). 

3 Sg. Conj. Pres. as-bera dicat, for berdt, 
Latin ferat, Ved. bhardt ; cf. ni<£, nia 
filius sororis, Gen. niad for nep-at-as, 
Latin nepotis. 

2 Sg. Imperat. cluinte hear, Ted. vahatdd. 
mdthir, Latin mater, Grk. /jlolttjp: athir 

Lat. pater, Grk. irarrip: brdthir, Lat. 
frater, Grk. (pparifip. 
siur sister, Lat. soror. 

3 PL Pres. as-berat dicunt for berant, 
Grk. 2<pepov, Latin ferunt. 

Ace. PL /rw, Lat. vi?*os, Cret. tops, 

Herakl. to>s, Attic roi5s. 
Nom. Sg. menmemind, Gen. menman; cf. 

Grk. /-teXas. 





I. Phonology. 




Prehistoric Irish. 





o, u 

Nom. Sg. beothu life, Gen. bethad (for 

bivat-at-as), Grk. piorTjs, Latin aetas. 

Nom. Sg. nice, nia films sororis, Gen. 

niad (for nepdt-as), Latin nepus. The 

Irish nice might also contain the suffix 

-at (with short vowel). 

Nom. Sg. tenge, tenga tongue, Gen. tengad 

(for tengat-as); cf.Old Gaulish Attrebas. 

Nom. Sg. fill, file poet, Gen. filed (for 

Nom. Sg. tricha thirty, Gen. trichat (for 
tri-cant-as) ; cf. Grk. Tpi&K-ovr-a : care, 
cam friend, Gen. cara£ (for caraj-ant- 
as) ; cf. Grk. i\£<pas, 1/jlo.s, rvxf/as. 
Nom. Sg. ,/icfte twenty, Gen. jichet (for 
vicent-as); cf. Latin vig-int-i: loche 
lightning, Gen. Idchet (for locent-as), 
Latin torrens, agens. 
Nom. Sg. N. rawi> sea for mor-i, Latin 
mar-e: 3 Sg. Pres. Act. &md for 
beret-i, Grk. ^/>et, Skr. bharat-i : 3 PI. 
fcmtf for berant-i, Doric <p£povT-i 7 Skr. 
Nom. Sg. /aii/i vates for vat-is , Grk. 

9r6<r-is, Latin ign-is. 
Ace. Sg. /ai£7i n- for vat-in, Grk. 7to(T-h'. 
Ace. PJ. /o7Ai for #a£is, Skr. kavin, Goth. 

Nom. and Ace. Dual <Z$ smZ two eyes for 

sul-i, Skr. Jcav-i. 
Nom. Sg. reci right for rect-u, Latin 
corn-u : 3 Sg. Imperat. fcerao" for 
berat-u, Skr. bharat-u : 3 PL Imperat. 
&era£ for berant-u, Skr. bharant-u. • 
Nom. Sg. fri£/i world for bit-us: mug 
servus for mog-us : ,/m knowledge for 
viss-us, Goth. niaguSy Latin fructus. 
Ace. Sg. bith n- for bit-un, Latin fruct- 

wm, Goth. magu. 
Ace. PI. moguy Goth, maguns, Lat. fructus. 
Nom. and Ace. Du. da mug for mog-u, 

Skr. 6a/m, two arms. 
Nom. PI. M. eich for egw-i, Latin eat*-?, 
Grk. tirir-oi : Nom. Du. Fern, di choiss 
two feet for coss-i, Skr. ftawye two 
maids: Dat. Sg. don menmain menti 
for meneman-i, Skr. manman-e^ Latin 
Dat. Sg. M. and N. donfiur to the man 
for vir-u ; dond eoch to the horse for 
equ-o, Latin vir-o, Grk. 'iTnrqj. 
Dat. Sg. F. don tuaith to the people, for 
tot-it Grk. xdopq., 8iK7} ? 

Aspiration. 25 

89. The effect of the original terminal sound is only 
discoverable in the initial sound of the following word, when 
both words according to the construction are very nearly con- 
nected with one another : as article and substantive, substantive 
and adjective, numeral and substantive, preposition and article 
or substantive, verbal particle and verb, negative and verb, rela- 
tive pronoun and verb, conjunction and verb, infixed pronoun 
and verb. These combinations are treated as if they were one 
word. The terminal sound of the first part and the initial 
sound of the second part are treated almost as if they were 
standing in the median sound. An attributive modification 
with a preposition may closely belong to the preceding noun: 
Juan cdin cor era n-imbi, a beautiful purple cloak about him, 
FB. 45 : ose cen udnucht n-imbi, SP. in. 6 : dobera muin n-immi, 
Ir. T. p. 144, 31. 

90. Three things may occur as to the initial sound of the 
following word : (1) it exhibits aspiration : (2) it exhibits a 
nasal : (3) it exhibits no change of the kind. 


9 1 . Aspiration has taken place after an original vowel termi- 
nal sound of the preceding word. Aspiration changes c and t to 
ch and th; s andjT to s and/(§ 4) and in Middle and Modern 
Irish also b, d, g, m to bh, dh, gh, mh. The remaining sounds 
are not affected by aspiration. 

92. The following forms and words are followed by aspira- 
tion (cf. Z. 2 p. 180, Stokes, Fis Adamnain, p. 38): (1) The article 
in the Gen. and Dat. Sg. M. and N. (tov 7 t<3), the Nom. PI. M. 
(rot), the Norn, and Dat. Sg. F. fa if), see § 171. (2) The 
nominal a-stems in the same cases, if an adjective or a genitive 
follows after them: Gen. Sg. M. oc fennad loigfothlai: fiad a 
chlaidib thana deirg : in trir churad : Dat. Sg. M. N. co n-galur 
fdail : co n-iher thor : a triur churad ; do airiuc thuile : on mud 

26 I. Phonology. 

chetna : ~Nom. PI. M. naim thuascirt in domain : a thdrraluig 
slighith : Nom. Sg. I?, fled chaurad: rigon...chaemcasto: tegdas 
chumtachta : Dat. F. di chlaind cheit rig : alleind chorcra : co 
m-binne chedil. Also in Voc. Sg. a ingen fial : JSTom. Du. dd 
grUad chorcra Lg. 18, 13. (3) In general all stems in the Dat. 
Sg. co mid chollan chain : iar cuairt chaille ; do gin chlaidib : 
on chomdid chumachtach : 6 Choin cherda Conchobair : na leth 
chli : do denam thole Be : sin t-sid threll : im lin chein. Also 
in the case originally distinguished from the dative (instru- 
mental?) which is tised to note time : ind adaig thilssech, in 
the first night. (4) The Nom. Sg. cH ; Cuchulaind, literally, the 
hound of Culann. (5) The vocative particle a. (6) The pos- 
sessive pronouns mo my, do thy, and the masculine, a his, of the 
third person. (7) The Nom. Ace. Da. M. dd and F. di two : 
the Nom. Ace. N. tri three (tri chet), cethir four. (8) The pre- 
positions di, do, fo, 6, tre, air (ar), cen, fiad, imm, ol, 6s : also 
eter (though as to Old Irish the reverse is noted, Z. 2 656). 
(9) The negations ni (mani), na, nach, nad. In Old Irish, ac- 
cording to Zeuss 2 179, aspiration is often absent after ni. 
Probably in this case the two words are not to be pronounced 
quickly one after the other but separately with emphasis, e.g. if, 
as in ni cl6in non injustus, the copula is absent between the 
negation and the predicate. (10) The verbal particles no, ro, 
do. (11) The enclitic infixed pronouns -m me, -t te; of the 
pronouns of the 3rd person according to Z. 2 181 : " d, n (eum, 
id), a (id, eos)," which is supported in the Irish texts by nod 
cMuined Lg. 8 (referring to andord M. or 1ST.), conda titanic 
adiit eos Hy. 2. 39. (12) The 3rd Sg. rel. as, has, the 3rd Sg. 
Second Present bad, the 3rd Sg. Perf. bu, bo, ba; according to 
Z. 2 181 also other forms of the verb substantive : as ch6ir, and 
so on; basferr Sc. M. 2 ; ro bad chomairche, SO. 10; diammad 
char a SC. 10. 7 ; co m-bo chomsolus FB. 2 and so on. After 
bad and bu aspiration is still usual in Modern Irish (O'Dono- 
van, Gr. p. 386). (13) Isolated forms of other verbs: fua- 
chimm chein SP. n. 10 : hi turn cheist SP. n. 12; nad deni 
thoil SP. IV. 2; tairces churathmir FB. 73. (14) Certain pro- 

Aspiration. 27 

nouns: os me chene SP. n. 12; coich thussa SO. 12; cia 
thoetsat Sc. M. 3. 16 ; is si thorrach Lg. 1 ; further ciaso thu 
TE. 13, LTL; masa thu SC. 33. 30. (15) The conjunctions ce 
cia though, 6 since; mar sm;/eib how: cid thiastais FB. 61 ; 
o thanic 81 ; mar char as SC. 44. 10 ; feib thallad FB. 82. Ac- 
cording to Zeuss 2 182 also md if, air then. Moreover the con- 
junctions ocus, is and, no or : ligrad 6ir. ..ocus charrmocail FB. 2 ; 
do bi'othrachaib . . .ocus cholcthib 4; ocus chineul TE. 2 Eg.; eter 
aite is chomalta SC. 29. 3 ; itir suide no sessam Hy. 1. 3 ; 
cuslennaig no chomairi Lg. 17, 22. 

93. Aspiration has come to be used as a grammatical 
instrument in cases where it has no etymological ground. To 
this some of the above-indicated cases may belong which may be 
indicated as follows : (1) Aspiration appears as a mark of the 
feminine, after the Nom. Sg. of i stems also, although this 
originally terminated in is : sHil chair ech ; turbaid chotulta ; gdir 
chommaidmi ; gdir chuitbiuda. In the same way of other stems : 
nau tholl; ail chloche. (2) As sign of the masculine also after a 
genitive which originally terminated in as ; glond catka chomra- 
maig ; in chon chetna ; bethath che ; perhaps also ind rig thuas 
SP. iv. 2. (3) In the initial sound of verbal forms before which 
the relative pronoun is absent : in ciiach thucais FB. 74 ; nifri 
biasta chathaigmit-ni 57,73;bdtu theis 17 ; is me time 73 ; cofult 
budi thic immach SC. 33. 26 ; is messi thall TE. 13, Eg. Aspiration 
here expresses a dependence or close conjunction ; and it has the 
same significance when the object appears aspirated after verbal 
forms of various kind (cf . also co n-den-sai chorai Ir. T. p. 1 30, 
29), or the predicate after any form of the verb substantive. 
In Modern Irish the Ace. th4 thee is distinguished by its 
permanent aspiration from the Nom. t&. 

94. Later aspiration is sometimes made use of after word 
forms which were distinguished within the historic period by a 
vowel termination, although they have lost a consonant at the 
end : ri chdigith TE. 1 Eg. : re se thrdth Sc. M. 21. 36. 

95. In some words a certain neetness in the articulation 

28 I. Phonology. 

appears to Lave led to a permanent aspiration of the initial 
sound : chucai, chucu (ad eum, ad eos), chena, thra, as for ind 
rig thfdas of the king above, SP. iv. 2 (cf. § 61). 

96. Aspiration is regularly employed in the second member 
of a compound. Most of the stems which stand in the first 
part of a compound terminated originally in a vowel, and 
these have given the rule for every compound : dobar dm otter 
(literally water-hound), roth-chless play of wheel; briathar-chath 
word-battle ; oen-fecht once ; ard-chend high-headed ; denchossid 
one-legged: thence also rig-thech king's house (stem rig- with 
"composition" vowel); often after so-, Skr. su-, e.g. so-chumact 
potens, but also after do-, although this originally (Skr. dus- 
Grk. (W-) terminated in a consonant, e.g. do-chumact impotens; 
after mi-, miss-,- e.g. mi-thoimtiu bad intention, cf. Goth, missa- 
deds misdeed. 


97. A nasal appears before the initial sound of the following 
word, if the preceding word originally had a nasal as its terminal 
sound. This nasal is drawn to the following word, and its 
form is directed by the nature of the subsequent initial sound. 
It appears as n before d, g and vowels; as m before 6; before 
c, t, f, s it disappears (§ 42) ; it becomes assimilated to a sub- 
sequent n, m, r, I, though, even in Old Irish, these sounds 
are not always written double (gen. pi. narruun, commonly na 
rUn of the secrets). Perhaps the disappearance of the nasals 
before c, t, f, s is, at least in part, founded on assimilation. 

98. Modern Irish grammarians call this change of initial 
sound eclipsis. The preceding sound eclipses the original 
initial sound in the pronunciation: na mbdrd of the bards is 
pronounced na mdrd, &c. ; c, t, and f are also affected by this 
eclipsis in later Irish writing, receiving before themselves g, d, 
and bh ; na gceart of the rights is pronounced na geart. This 
change has nothing to do directly with the original nasal, but it 

Eclipsis. 29 

is the same which in ordinary internal sound has affected the 
imaspirated c and f in Old Irish (ec death, Modern Irish eug, 
and in the same way Old Irish na cert, Modern Irish na gceart), 

99. The following forms have a nasal after them : 

(1) The article in the nom. sg. neuter, ace. sg. and gen. pi. 
of all three genders. 

(2) All a-stems in the same cases, nom. sg. neuter : dliged 
n-doraid, lestar n-arggit, ace. sg. masc. ar fer n-aile, fern. gen. 
pi. co mathibfer n-Ulad. 

(3) Generally all masculines and feminines in the ace. sg. 
and all three genders in the gen. pi. rig n-amra. 

(4) The nom. dual neuter and the dative dual of all three 
genders of dd (da n-, dib n- two). 

(5) The plural possessive pronouns ar our, far your, a 
their (French leur). 

(6) The prepositions co with ; i in, iar after, re before. 

(7) The numerals secht, ocht, no% deich (pcht probably after 
analogy of the three others). 

(8) The infixed pronouns a, da earn, s earn, eos. After 
suppression of the a there remains of the first two only -w- and 
-dn-; rom-bertaigestar, rod m-bertaigedar, Sc. M. 15. 

(9) The relative pronoun a. 

100. Here also transfers have taken place: after analogy 
of neuters in a, neuters in i and as have also received such an 
n: muir n-Icht, mind n-bir, inmain n-ainm...Aeda, dear the 
name of Aed ; hi tech n-6il. 

In neuters in man the nasal may belong to the stem : leim 
n-iiathmar ainm n-Aeda. 

101. On the other hand, as the neuter as a separate gender 
gradually dies away, so also sometimes the n before neuter a- 
stems is wanting. 

102. In all remaining cases, where in the grammatical 
formulas mentioned in § 89 neither aspiration nor the nasal is 

30 /. Phonology. 

observable, the first word-form originally had as terminal sound 
any consonant except m or n. 

103. Cases occur in which the last syllable of words of 
more than one syllable has remained as such, even when not in 
their original condition. The last syllable is preserved : 

(1) when it ends in r; brdthir, Latin /rater; eter, Latin 

(2) when it terminates in a double consonant: do-berat 
they give, for berant, Greek efapovj firu, Latin viros, Goth. 
vairans ; loehe lightning, a nominative form like the Latin 

(3) when it contained a long vowel with final s, t, or d: 
tuatha the peoples, nom. pi., as Goth, ihiudos, Ski*, kanyds the 
maidens: do-bera he may give, 3 sg. conj. pres. as Latin ferat, 
Skr. bhardt. * 

104 a . Of final consonants except the nasal (in the cases men- 
tioned § 97) only r and the t of the group nt are preserved. 
gs, ks, ts, nts, ns were assimilated to ss, s, and have disappeared : 
ri king, Latin rex; mi month, Latin mensis; loche, lightning 
(gen. I6chet); cf. Latin lucens. 

104 b . Harely an original s in terminal sound is assimilated 
to a following m, n, r or I: e.g. the s of the form inna, net 
of the article; gen. sg. fern, nammucci of the pig; gen. sg. fern. 
nallongsi of the banishment; cf. allatin e Latino, prep, ass a, 
Latin ex. 

105. In the third sg. of the s-future of the conjoined 
flexion a similar ss, s has disappeared, although it did not 
originally stand in the final sound : tei stands for a pre-historic 
tess-it, cf. Grk. crrct^ct. 

106. In the gen. sg. of masculine and neuter stems in a 
and in the dat. sg. of neuters in as more than one syllable has 
been lost: eich equi appears to answer to the Skr. agvasya: tig, 

Prosthesis. Aphceresis. 31 

dative of teg house, must Lave had a termination after the 
stem-form teges-. 


107. h is often placed as in mediaeval Latin before an initial 
vowel. This is without fixed rule in Old Irish, but gradually 
becomes invariable in particular cases : 

(1) after the forms inna and na of the article (gen. sg. 
fem., nom. pi.), e.g. na hingine of the girl; na heich the steeds; 

(2) after the possessive a fem. gen., e.g. a ech his steed, a 
hech her steed; 

(3) after the prepositions co,fri, la, a (ass), e.g. co hEmain, 
fri Mr, la hdes, a hEmain ; 

(4) after ba fuit, e.g. bd halaind, ba he, but also in any- 
other situation often he, he ; 

(5) in general before certain words without regard to the 
preceding word, e. g. before the preposition in- when its nasal 
has disappeared: hi Temraig in Tara; hitd ubi est; very often 
hEriu, hErend. 

108. In Middle and Later Irish an /is placed before certain 
words: focus, comfocus near, Old Irish ocus; fuacht cold, Old 
Irish Hacht; for inquit, Old Irish or, ol ; fur-dil enjoin, Old 
Irish ur-, er-dil; ros-fuc tulit eos, Old Irish ro uc, rue; dos 
fanic came to them, Old Irish do anic, tdnic; confacca vidit, 

Old Irish con acca; dona fib eis qui, Old Irish donaib hi. 


108 b . Sometimes, especially in Later Irish, the initial vowel 
in small proclitic words is suppressed : con tein for ocon 
tein by the fire; md tudchatar for imma tudchatar where- 
fore they are come; sin raaig for isin maig on the plain; na 

32 J. Phonology. 

Idmaib for inna Idmaib in their hands. Thus also in the article 
na has arisen from inna, 

108 c . Thus also the s of the initial sound of the proclitic 
article and relative pronoun has disappeared and has only sur- 
vived in union with prepositions which had a consonantal 
terminal sound (cf. § 169 and § 207). Thus also the conjunction 
and preposition amal, amail may be put with samail likeness, 
Latin simile. 



109. Declension varies according to the original terminal 
sound of the stem. The following may be distinguished : 

I. Stems in a, with the subdivision of stems in ia, Mascu- 
line, Feminine and Neuter; 

II. Stems in i, Masculine, Feminine and Neuter ; 

III. Stems in u, Masculine and Neuter ; 

IV. Stems with consonantal terminal sound, namely 
(a) stems in d, th (originally t) and t (originally nt), (b) stems 
in a guttural, (c) stems in r (the terms of kinship), (d) stems 
in n, Masculine and Feminine, (e) Neuters in man, (/) Neuters 
in as and other stems in s. 


(a) Stems in a. 

110. Paradigms: fer Masc. man, Math Fem. people, 
dliged Neut. law. 


N. in fer in Math (§ 64) a n-dliged n- 

G. ind fir inna tuaithe in dligid 

D. dond fiur don ttiaith don dligud 

A. in fer n- in tuaith n- a n-dliged n~ 

V. a fir a thaath a dliged n-, 

I. G. 3 


II. Declension. 

N. ind fir 
G. inna for n- 
D. donaib feraib 
A. inna Jiru 
Y. a firu 

1ST. A. in da for 
G. tn da for 
D. m di& feraib 

inna tuatha 
inna tuath n- 
donaib tuatliaib 
inna tuatha 
a thuatha 

in di thimith 
in da Math 
in dib tuathaib 

inna dliged, dligeda 
inna n-dliged n- 
donaib dligedaib 
inna dliged, dligeda 
a dligeda. 

in dd n-dliged 

in dd dliged 

in dib n-dligedaib. 

111. In tlie same way are declined the Masculine nouns : 
ball limb, bel lip, eenn head, flach debt, iasc fish, folt hair, 
mace son, Idech hero, dia God ; and the Feminine nouns : 
dram number, rann part, eland progenies, lam hand, breth 
judgment, sere love, fere wrath, delb form, ingen girl, bairgen 
bread, tol will, coss foot, crick end, grian sun, ciall sense, Hall 
superbia, briathar word ; and the Neuter nouns : bds death, grdd 
gradus, rath grace, seel story, accobor will, sdithar trouble, galar 
sickness, cenel kind, foraithmet memoria, etach dress, biad food, 
bunad origo, torad fruit, uaihad singularitas ; the adjectives 
mall slow, marb dead, sldn whole, m6r great, bee little, tren 
brave, ole evil, lond bold, coem soft, woe& holy, s6er free, Mc^A 
swift, fercach wrathful, iressach faithful, buidech thankful, 
toirsech mournful, beo alive. 

lll b . The u peculiar to the Dat. Sg. M. and £T. (or o, e.g. 
eoch Dat. of ech) is gradually given up again (fir, cinnior the 
more ancient fiur, ciunn); in syllables with a, i, ia, 6, 4a, 6i, 
6e } as in some other words such as mac, rath and in adjectives 
in -ach it has never been observed at all. (Cf. § 22.) 

112. The following are noteworthy : fiach, Gen. fetch, but 
biad, Gen. biid, bid, Dat. bind (§ 11); grian, Dat. grein ; 
briathar, Dat. brethir ; N. dia, G. dee, de, D. dia, A. a%a n-, 
Y. a <#, PI. 1ST. dee, de, G. dia n~, D. da&, A. deo. 

Steins in ia. 


113. Ben woman is irregular and is declined thus 3 
-N. ben, G. mnd, D. mndi, A. mndi n-, V. a ben, PI. N. mnd, 
G. ban n-, D. mndib y A. mw^, Dual IS", A. c?t mndi, G. da 
mw^, D. dib mndib. 

114. In Middle Irish the feminine form in -a of the No- 
minative Plural is introduced also into the masculine of adjec- 
tives : marba besides mairb. Gf. § 180. 

115. Paradigms 
N. heart. 

(b) Stems in ia. 
cele M. fellow, aidche F. night, cride 

N. in cele 
G. in cheli 
D. don cheliu 
A. in cele n- 
V. a cheli 

N. in cheli 
G. inna cele n~ 
D. donaib celib 
A. zVma celiu 
V. a cheliu 

N. A. dd.chele 
G. cftf cefo 
D. c&6 ce^6 

ind aidche a cride n- 

inna aidche, haidche in chridi 
dond aidchi don chridiu 

in n-aidchi n- a cride n~ 

a aidche a chride n-. 

inna aidchi, haidchi inna cride 
inna n-aidche n- inna cride n~ 
donaib aidchib donaib cridib 

inna aidchi, haidchi inna cride 
a aidchi a chride. 

di aidchi 
da aidche 
dib n-aidchib 

dd cride 
,dd cride 
dib cridib. 

116. In the same way are declined the Masculine nouns : 
dalte pupil, rectire propositus, tigerne lord, uisce water; and 
the Feminine nouns core peace, gorte hunger, insce speech, 
sUche wife, sochude crowd, cense mildness, fdilte joy, soillse 
light; and the Neuter nouns Mire speech, corrtarde sign, 



II Declension. 

cumachte power, esseirge resurrection, taimgire promise; and 
the adjectives asse easy, anse difficult, doe slow, nice new, uile 
all, colnide carnal, nemde heavenly, cetne same. 

117. In many of these words already in the older language 
e has been expanded to a, especially after a broad vowel : dalta 
(Gen. daltai), c6ra, gorta, comarda, cumachta, assa, ansa, nemda, 
cetna, tigerna, belra. The writing cumachtce, censce indicates an 
intermediate stage. 

118. In the Dative Sg. Masc. and Neuter the i is sup- 
pressed after a broad vowel : daltu, gortu, and later a appears 
in place of u : dalta. In words with a slender vowel after the 
disappearance of the wani remains : cell. 

119. In later manuscripts terminal i and e are not sharply 

120. Duine M. man, Gen. duini has in the Plural doini, 
Gen. ddine, and so on. lathe N. day, is also contracted to laa, 
Id, Gen. Idi (besides lathi), Dat. lau, lb, Id, Ace. Id n-, and so on. 


Stems in i. 
121. Paradigms : faith M. poet, suit F. eye, muir N". sea. 

N. in faith in t-sHil 

G. ind fdiho, fdtha inna stilo, stila 

D. dondfdith 
A. in faith n* 
Y. a faith 

1$. ind fdthi 
G. inna fdthe n- 
D. donaib fdthib 
A. inna fdthi 
Y. a fdthi 

don t-suil 
in stiil n~ 
a mil 

inna sUli 
inna stile n~ 
donaib sulib 
inna suli 
a mil 

ammuir, a muvrn- 
in mora 
don muir 
ammuir n- 
a muir. 

inna mora 
inna more n- 
donaib muirib 
inna mora 
a mora 

Stems in u, 37 


1ST. A. dd faith di Mil dd muir 

G. dd fdtho, fdtha dd stila dd mora 

D. dib fdthib dib siilib dib muirib 

122. In the same way are declined the Masculine nouns : 
cndim bone, cimbid prisoner, tuistid parens, dorsid and dorsiSir 
door-keeper ; and the Feminine nouns : Mail (Gen. beta) hatchet, 
colinn flesh (Gen. colno), cruim worm, duil element, fiaith 
lordship, full blood, fochith, fochaid suffering, iarfaigid (Gen. 
iarfaigtho) asking; and the Neuter nouns : bilaid victory, guin 
wound, mind crown, rind star, tir land ; and the adjectives : 
cdir uniform, just, leir industrious, erdirc famous, maith good, 
sain different, cosmil like, mithig fitting, dlind lovely (Nom. 
PI. dildi } ailli), allaid wild. 

123. Neuter nouns with a slender vowel have e in place 
of a: tir country (Gen. tire); rind has in the Nbni. PI. rind 
and renna, the latter (also mora?) perhaps in transition to 
Declension la. 

124. Some Feminine nouns fluctuate between this and the 
first declension, especially the infinitive gabdl and gabdil take, 
tabairt and tabart give, tomailt and tomalt consume. 

125. In the same way adjectives in many instances 
fluctuate between the i- and the a- declension; the genitive 
singular masculine and neuter is formed always according to 
the first declension : maith good, Gen. maith, 


Stems in u. 

126. Paradigms : gnim M. deed, doing, recht N. right. 

N. in gnim arrecht (n-) 

G. in gnimo, gnima in rechto, rechta 

D. don gnim dond recht 

A. in n-gnim n- arrecht (n~) 

38 II. Declension. 


N. in gnimai, gnima inna rechte, rechta 

G. inna n-gnime n- inna rechte n- 

D. donaib gnimaib donaib rechtaib 

A. inna gnimu inna rechte, rechta 


N. A. dd gnim da recht 

G. dd gnimo, gnima dd rechto, rechta 

T>. dib n-gnimaib dib rechtaib. 

127. In the same way are declined the Masculine nouns : 
bith world, brdth judgment, cruth figure, guth voice, fid tree,: 
mug slave, dis, 6is aetas, senchas antiquity, fiuss, fiss knowledge,. 
cotlud sleep, and all other infinitives in -ud and -ad. 

128. The Neuter nouns are not sharply distinguished from 
the Masculine. The following may, with more or less certainty, 
he classed as neuter : ith corn (Gen. etho), lin number, lind 
drink, loch lake, med mead, sruth stream, suth fetus, tes heat, 
dorus door. 

129. The infinitives in -ud of verbs of the III. Conju- 
gation show especially the after effect of the original u in the 
Kom. Sg. : loscud to burn, foillsigud to show. In the later 
language this -ud is changed in many verbs to ad: loscadh. 
More frequently Old Irish had a u in the Dative Sg. isin biuth 
in the world, dindriuth de cursu (Nom. bith, rith), but it was 
gradually given up even here. 

130. After a slender vowel -e shows itself for -o, -a in the 
Gen. Sg. : suidigud positio, Gen. suidigthe. 

131. A great variation of the ending is observed in the 
Norn. PL : besides gnimai and gnima there are found gnimi, 
gnimce and gnime. 

132. Adjectives in the plural pass into the i declension : 
follus clear, Nom. 'Pl./oilsi; il much, Ace. PI. ill. 

(a) Dental Stems. 


133. Many words follow later the a-declension : dorus, 
later doras door, Gen, dorais. 


(a) Dental stems. 
Paradigms: fili M. poet, ara M. charioteer, cara 

M. friend, beotliu M. life, 


N. in fili 
G. ind filed 
I), dondfilid 
A. infilid n- 

K. ind f Hid 
G. inna filed n- 
D. donaib filedaib 
A. innafileda 
V. afileda 

KA. aa/^ 
G. da filed 
D. dib filedaib 

in t-ara 
ind arad 
dond arid 
in n-arid n- 
a ara 

%n cava 
in charat 
don charit 
in carit n- 
a chara 

in beothu 
in bethad 
don bethid 
in m-bethid n- 
a beothu 

ind arid 
inna n-arad n- 
donaib aradaib 
inna arada 
a arada 

in cliarit 
inna carat n- 
donaib eairtib 
inna cairtea 
a diairtea 


da arid dd charit 

da arad dd carat 

dib n-aradaib dib eairtib 

1 35. Like fili are declined : 6igi guest, slige way, tene fire, 
Hine shirt, cdimdiu, coimdi (Gen. coimded) Lord, eirr curruum 
princeps, traig foot, mil miles, drui Druid (but Gen. Sg. and 
PI. and Du. druad). 

136. Like ara are declined : nia hero, nia nice nepos, asca 
rival, enemy, tenge, tenga tongue, Ulaid Ultonii, sab princeps, 
fortis, cin guilt. 

40 II Declension. 

137. Like care, car a, are declined: ndmo3, ndma enemy, 
tipra spring, tricha thirty, dinu lamb, fiadu, fiada, Lord, God, 
NUadu Norn, pr., brdge neck, loche (Gen. Idchet) lightning, 

fiche (Gen. fichet) twenty, tee, te, hot. 

138. Like beothu are declined numerous abstract nouns in 
-tu and -datu, the latter being derived from adjectives in -de : 
6entu, unitas, aurlatu obedience, crodatu hardness, esbatu inuti- 
lity s, 6endatu unity, mordatu greatness. 

139. The stem of the paradigms fill, ara, beothu had an 
original terminal sound in t; hence tk is still found instead of d, 
and unaspirated t in the immediate contact of the dental with I 
or n : niath nepotis, bethath vitae, tengthaib Unguis, sligthi viae, 
tenti ignes, Ultaib. 

140. The stem of the example cara had an original ter- 
minal sound in -nt. The t of cara becomes d in Middle Irish 
by direct contact with r ; cairdib. 

141. For -id , -it in the Dative and Ace. of all numbers of 
the paradigms ara, cara, beothu -aid, -ait came to be written in 
Middle Irish. Simple i remains after a slender vowel : fiche 
twenty, Ace. fichit. 

142. Even in Old Irish in the Dat. Sg. of the paradigm 
beothu, a form resembling the Nominative is found : i m-bethu 
in life; so also it chin besides it chinaid through thy guilt. 
Also instead of the Nom. Dual the form of the Nominative 
Singular is used. 

143. In Middle Irish such forms occur in the Nom. PL as 
tenti, sligthi, traigthi; in the Accusative Plural forms in -u, -o, 
replace the older forms in -a ; Ulto, Ultu,filedu. 

(b) Guttural stems. 

144. Paradigm : cathir F. town. 

Singular. Plural Dual, 

K. in chathir inna cathraig d% chathraig, chathir 

G. inna cathrach inna cathrach n+ dd cathrach 

(c) Terms of kinship in r. 


D. don chathraig, donaib cathrachaib dib cathrachaib 


A. in cathraig n- inna cathracha di chathraig 

V. a chathir a chaihracha 

145. In the same way are declined: nathir water-snake, 
lassair flame, Idir (Gen. Idrach) mare, dair oak, Temair Tara, 
ail (Gen. ailech) rock, Lugaid (Gen. Luigdech and Lugdach) ; 
and with a terminal vowel : coera sheep, mala eyebrow, Ace. 
Plur. mail-gea, eola knowing, rure king (Gen. rurech), aire 
nobleman (Gen. airech). 

146. The Nom. daur oak belongs to an old u stem, as also 
the Gen. daro, dara. Some other words of this kind form 
single cases without the guttural. Dat. Sg. cathir, Temair y 
Ace. ail, Dat. PI. cdirib. 

147. Lia, lie M. stone, Latin cos, is an isolated stem in 
cc 9 c, and is thus declined : ~N. lia, lie, G. liacc, D. liic and lia, 
A. Hie n-> PI. N. lieic, G. liacc n-. Another word is lecc F. 
stone, flagstone, N. lecc, G. licce, D. leicc, A. leicc n-, PI. N. A. 
fecca, G. lecc n-, D. leccaib. 

148. Ri M. king is an isolated stem in g, and is thus 
declined, N. ri, G. rig, D. r%, A. rfo/ n-, Y. a ri, PL N. H<7, G. 
rig n- } D. rigaib, A. rig a, Middle Irish rigu, Dual N. A. da 
rig, G. da rig, D. cfo'ft rigaib. A similar stem is 6ri hill, Gen. 

149. Paradigm 
N. m brdthir 
G. ^w brdthar 
D. dow. brdthir 
A. iTi m-brdthir n- 
Y. a brdthir 

Terms of kinship in r. 
; brdthir M. brother. 

in brdthir 
inna m-brdthre n- 
donaib brdithrib 
inna brdithrea 
a brdithrea 

da brdthir 
dd brdthar 
dib m-brdithrib 
dd brdthir. 

150. Brdthar is found in the Gen. PI. as well as brdthre. 

42 11. Declension. 

Later brdithre is also met with in the Nom. PI. In the same 
way are declined : mdthir mother, athir father, in Middle Irish 
brdthair, mdthair, athair. Also siur sister, Gen. sethar, fethar, 
§56, Dat. siair,Jiair. 

151. In the later language these words have come to be 
inflected like cathir : Hasal-athraig patriarchs, Modern Irish 
Norn, and Ace. PI. brdithreacha. 

(d) Masculine and Feminine stems in n and nn (nd). 

152. Paradigms: brithem M. judge, inga P. nail, toimtin 
F. meaning, goba M. smith. 

N. in brithem ind inga in toimtin in goba 

G. in brithemon, inna ingan inna toimten in gobann 

D. don brithe- dond ingain don toimtin don gobainn 

A. in m-britke- in n-ingain n- in toimtin n- in n-gobainn n- 

main n- 
V. a brithem a inga a goba 

N. in brithemain inna ingain inna toimtin in gobainn 
G. inna m-brithe- inna n-ingan n- inna toimten inna ngobann n~ 

man n- n- 

D. donaib bri- donaib ingnaib donaib toim- donaib gobannaib 

themnaib tinib 

A. inna brithem- inna ingna } -e inna toimtena inna gobanna 

Y. a brithemna a ingna 

N. A. da brithe- dd gobainn 

G. dd britheman dd gobann 

D. dib m-brithem- dib n-gobannaib 


(e) Neuter Nouns in man (nn). 43 

153. Like brithem are declined other Nomina actoris, e.g. 
dUlem creator (from dull element), flaithem ruler (from Jiaith 
lordship), also ollam princeps poetarum (Gen. ollaman), talam 
F. earth (Gen. talman\ and with a terminal vowel menme M. 
sense (Gen. menman). 

154. Anim F. soul has G. anme, D. anmin, anmain ; 
A. anmin, anmain n-, PL N. anmin, and so on, but in Middle 
Irish comes to be inflected in the Plural like the Neuter noun 
ainm name, PI. N. A. anmand, G. anmand n-, D. anmannib. 

155. Like inga are declined dra, dru kidney, aursa door- 
post, gulba bill, leco cheek, lurga shinbone, Mta little finger, 
ulcha beard, Alba North Britain, Muma Munster, patu hare, aud 
without a vowel in the Nominative, triath sea, Gen, trethan. 

156. In the Nom. PL such forms as ingni are found later 
(cf. § 143). 

157. broo, brb millstone, G. broon, bron, D. broin, Ac. 
broin n-; cd M. hound, G. con, D. coin, Ac. coin n-, V. a chd; 
PL N. coin, G. con n-, D. conaib, Ac. cona. 

158. Feminine abstract nouns in -tin, -lu are declined like 
toimtiu ; foisitiu confessio, ditiu protection, tichtu advent, aicsiu 
vision; also noidiu child, Ace. PL (in Middle Irish) noidenu 
(cf. § 143). 

159. Like goba are declined gtiala shoulder, bara anger, 
cuisle vein, Gen. cuislenn, uile elbow, Eriu F. Ireland (G. 
Erenn, D. Erinn), bru F. womb (G. bronn, brond, Dat. broind). 

(e) Neuter nouns in man (nn), 

160. Paradigm : ainm name. 

N. A. a n-ainm n- 
G. ind anma, anme 
D. dond anmaimm, ainm 



inna anmann 

dd n-ainm 

inna n-anmann n- 

donaib anmannaib 

dib n-anmannaib. 

44 II, Declension. 

161. In the same way are declined coirm beer, gairm shout, 
druimm back (Gen. drommo), maidm eruption, teidm pestis, 
senim sonitus, tochimm striding, ingrimm jmrsuing, tothim, later 
tuitim fall. 

162. The following have ~enn in place of -ann: beim, 
beimm blow, ceimm step, leimm leap, reimm cursus, nominative 
plural bemen, cemenn. 

163. In Old Irish only one n is often written (bemen) and 
in Middle Irish often nd for nn (anmand). 

(/) Neuter nouns in as and other stems in s. 

164. Paradigm : teg, tech N. house. 




N. A. a teg, tech n- 

inna tige 

da tech (?) 

G. in Uge 

inna tige n- 

dd tige 

T>. don tig 

donaib tigib 

dib tigib. 

165. In the same way are declined the Neuter nouns: 
nem heaven, leth side, mag plain, sliab mountain, glend dale : 
dun castle and gMn knee vary in the later language, G. dune, 
D. dun, glun, N. PL duine, N. Du. da prim-dun, da glun. 

166. Comparatives in -iu, u (o) may be placed here, but 
they show no differences of case as they are only used in the 
nominative, Nom. Sg. and PL laigiu, lugu less, mdo, mbu 
greater, lia more. 

167. mi, month, G. mis, D. mis, A. mis n- } PL N. mis, 
G. mis n-, D. misaib, A. misa. 

Isolated stems and stems difficult to class. 

168. B6 cow (stem b6-, bov-), G. bou, b6, D. boin, A. boin n-, 
PL N. bai, ba, G. bb n-, D. buaib, A. bu ; Du. K di ba, D. dib 
m-buaib f A. di ba, di boin. 

Isolated stems difficult to class. 45 

169. die day (put under s stems in Zeuss, ed. n. p. 270), 
Ace. fri dei, de by day, with two cases used adverbially, 
in diu to-day, and dia followed by a genitive, e. g. dia brdtha 
at doomsday. 

170. gne form, gle resplendent, and the composite nouns 
to-gu, ro-gu choice, show no distinctions of case. 



171. A rough breathing after the form is to show that it 
causes aspiration. Paradigms : 






in, in t- 

in, inoV, in 


in, incf, 



inna, na 


don, donoV, 

don t- 

as M. 


in n- 

as M. 


in, ind\ 



inna, na 


as F. 

inna, na n- 


as F. 

donaib, dona 


as F. 



in dd 

in di 


in dd 

in dd 


in dib n~ 

in dib n- 


in dd 

in di 


















dd n- 




dib n- 


dd n-. 

172. In the nominative singular masculine the t- comes 
before a vowel initial sound, in t-athir the father, in all other 

The Article. 47 

cases before an initial s, in place of which it is pronounced, 
in t-serc the love. 

173. The change between n and nd is only found in those 
cases which cause aspiration, nd is used regularly in Old 
Irish before those sounds which have never been aspirated, viz. 
before I r n and before vowels, also before f which when 
aspirated disappears altogether, so that a vowel, an r or an I 
may be taken for the proper initial sound of the word : N. 
Sg. F. in chathir the town, indflaith the lordship, G. Sg. M. in 
choimded of the Lord, ind athar of the father, Dat. don brdthir 
to the brother, don mace to the son. t immediately preceded 
by n is not aspirated (cf. § 64) Gen. Sg. in tige of the house. 
In Modern Irish only forms with n occur (an and nd). 

174. The article had originally an s. This s has been 
retained in the Dat. and Ace. in union with prepositions of 
consonantal terminal sound, iarsin from iar n- after, ressin 
from re n- before, cossin, cosnaib from co n- with (c. Dat.), 
issin, isnaib, isna, isin dib (Dat. Du.) from i n- in (cum Dat. 
et Ace), lassin n- (M. F.), lassa n~ (N.), lasna PL, lasin di (Ace. 
Du. F.) from la(th) with, frissin n- (M. F.), frissa n- (N.), 
frisna (PL) from fri(th) towards, trissinn- (M. F.), trissa n- (N.), 

trisna (PL) from tri through, cossin n- (M. F.), cossa n- (N.) 
from co(th) to, iarsin n- (M. F.), tarsa n- (N.), tarsna (PL) from 
tar (8) over (cum Ace), assin (M. F. N.) from a> ass out of (cum 
Dat.), forsin (Dat. M. F. N.),forsin n- (Ace. M. ~F.),forsa n- 
(N.), forsnaib (PL Dat), forsna (Ace.) from for upon (c. Dat. 
et Ace). 

175. Other instances of union with prepositions which 
originally had vowel endings are: on Han (Dat. Sg.), tmaib (PL), 

fon (Dat. Sg.),/6n n- (Ace M. F.) from 6 of, fo under, and 
ocon besidesoc m(Dat.), immon n- (Sg. Ace M. F.), imma n- (N.) 
from oc by, imm about. Also don (Dat. Sg.), donaib (PL), cfoV& 
(Dat. Sg.), dinaib (PL) from efc to, di of, over. 

176. The remaining prepositions cause no alteration of 

48 III. The Article. 

the article : ar in (Dat. Sg.), ar naib (Dat. PL), ar na (Ace), 
from ar for, before. 

177. In Middle Irish the peculiar form of the dative 
plural ~(s)naib is disused and the accusative form -(s)na is used 
in its stead ; Middle Irish dona 7 dina, forsna, 6na for Old Irish 
donaib, dinaib, forsnaib, tinaib and so on. 

178. The abbreviated form na by degrees wholly takes 
the place of the fuller form inna. The fuller form is never 
found after prepositions. 

179. The neuter gradually loses in the 'Nom. and Ace. Sg. 
its peculiar form ; in tech the house for the older a tech : but 
again in Modern Irish an instead of in, for all genders in the 
Nom. and Ace. Sing. 

180. In the Nom. PI. the feminine form inna, na finally 
also supplants the masculine in: na maic the sons for Old Irish 
in maic (cf. § 114). 



181. The comparative is usually formed by the suffix -iu, -u 
(Modern Irish -i, -e). 

Positive Comparative 

sen old siniu 

dlind pretty dildiu, dilliu (§71) 

drd high drdu 

comacus near comaicsiu 

— laigiu, lugu minor. 

182. The suffix of the superlative is -em (-am), less often 




follus apertus 



cdem handsome 



adbul prodigious 



4asal noble 



183. Irregular comparison : 
Positive Comparative 


il much 


6ac young 



m&r, mor great 

mdo, m&a md, mo 


sir long 


tren strong 

tressa, tressiu 


ocus near 

nessa, nessu 


olc bad 

messa, messu 

maith good 



bee little 

laigiu, lugu 

lugam, lugimem. 



50 IV. Comparison. 

184. Instead of the special superlative form the compa- 
rative is generally used with the preceding relative as, has (qui 
est) : inti diib bes tresa orcaid alaile the strongest of them kills 
the other ; dd ech has ferr la Gonnachtu the two best horses in 

185. There is a second disused comparative form in -ither, 
-ithir, idir ; leir industrious, comparative leriu and lerithir ; 
Math swift, comparative luathiu and luathither. 

186. " The," Latin eo, with the comparative is expressed by 
de placed after the adjective : ferr de the better. Better and 
better ferr assaferr ; worse and worse messa assa messa. 

187. "Than," Latin quam, after the comparative is ex- 
pressed by ol or inda. 01 is without exception associated with a 
relative form of the verb substantive and inda is usually so : 
olda-as old&s, inda-as indds quam est; olddte indate quam 

188. As in Latin the ablative is used instead of this form, 
so in Irish the dative of the compared object is employed : 
ni diliu nech limm alailiu non carior mini quisquam altero. 
In feminine stems in a this case of the comparative (originally 
an instrumental V) sounds sometimes like the nominative. 

In Middle Irish the accusative is used in the same way : 
it luathidir gdith n-erraig they are swifter than a spring gale. 


189. Adverbs are formed from adjectives 

1. By the dative singular masculine or neuter with 
the article : bee little, adverb in biucc paullatim ; laigiu minor, 
adverb ind laigiu minus. 

2. By a peculiar form in -ith, -id with the same case of 
the article : tinde singularis, adverb ind dindid singulariter. 

3. By prefixing the preposition co: dian swift, adverb 
co dian swiftly. 

The third becomes the usual form in Middle Irish. 





190. To the Greek ovtos answers substantially side, suide, 
less often ade, and adjectivally the indeclinable suffix sin ; in 
fer sin this man, genitive ind fir sin and so on (compare the 
French cet homme-ci). sin occurs also without substantive : 
iar sin fxerd rovro ; in sin (indeclinable) substantival, for all 
three genders. 

191. To the Greek oSc answer the demonstratives se, sa 
and so, indeclinable and placed after the substantive : in fer so 
6 dvrjp oSc ; substantially so and in so (indeclinable) for all 
three genders. 

se, sa and so become si, sea and seo or sin after a slender 

192. All these demonstratives also become adverbial, in- 
tensifying the meaning when added to the adverb and, here : 
andsin, andso, andside, andaide. 

193. Some of the particles (particulae augentes) which 
serve for the stronger enunciation of the personal pronouns are 
of the same origin : -se, -sa for the 1 Sg., messe, mesi I, ro-bdsa 
I was; -su, -so for the 2 Sg., tussu thou, do ara-so thy charioteer, 

foracbaisiu thou didst abandon (for f or acbais-siu) ; -som, -sam,-sem 
for the 3 Sg. M. and the 3 PL of all three genders, esseom he, 
rigid-som he stretches out. 

Personal Pronouns, 53 

194. To the Greek tovto answer also on, son. Sodin, sodain 
oJtos is rarely used in other than a neuter sense : la sodain 

195. The enclitic 4 has a more determinative character. 
When united with the article (M. inti, F. indi, N. ani) it is 
followed by a proper name, or by a demonstrative or relative 
clause : inti Labraid this (aforesaid) Labrid, ani sin tovto, 
inti siu oSe, inti thall ille ; inti cretfes French celui qui croira, 
Dat. PL Old Irish donaib hi gnite iis qui faciunt, Middle Irish 
dona fib no chretitis to those who believed, cosna fib filet intib 
with those who are therein, or placed after the substantive as : 
lasin screich i sin upon this cry. 

196. The Greek e/cctvos is expressed by means of the adverbs 
tall, ut, sut, ucut, sucut illic, subst. inti thall yon, adj. in fer 
tall, French cet homme-la, na tri dath ucut those three colours. 

197. To the Latin idem correspond inonn, inunn and 
cetne, cetna : infer cetne idem vir (but in cetne fer primus vir). 

198. Side, suide and ade hie (§ 190) with the neuter se 
hoc (e.g. re siu antehac) are alone declinable without the 
article. Their form of declension is that of noun-stems in ia 
(§ 115) but side is also in use undeclined for the Nom. PI. of 
all three genders. 

Personal Pronouns. 

199. The personal pronouns are frequently strengthened 
by an enclitic pronominal particle (particula augens), cf. § 193. 

In the 1 and 2 persons pi. the strengthening takes place by 
reduplication of the pronoun. The strengthened form is within 
parentheses : 

Singular. Plural. 

me I (messe, mesi) ni, sni we (snisni, snini, ninni) 

tii thou (tussu, tuso) sib you (sissi), 

e he, si she, edit (e som, sisi 9 ed 6n) e, iat they (e som, iat som). 





1 sinn 

sinn, inn 


2 sib 

sib, ib 

e, i 

3 siat 


54 VI. Pronouns. 

200. These forms also occur in the accusative. In the later 
language a distinction is attempted between the Nom. and Ace. 

Singular. Plural. 


1 me 

2 tu 

3 se, si (i) 

201. The pronoun governed by a preposition (pron. suf- 
fixum) is blended with the preposition. The pronoun governed 
by a verb is in Old Irish blended with the preceding verbal 
particle, conjunction, negative particle, or preposition (pron. 
infixum). In the second case the particle do is often put 
before the verb in order to suffix the pronoun to it. 

202. These enclitic dative and accusative forms sound as 
follows : in the 1 Sg. -m, -mm (aspirating), 2 Sg. -t (aspirating), . 
in the 1 PI. -n, -nni, -nn (-nd), 2 PL -& .• dam, damsa to me, 
frimm towards me, indium in me, mani-m berasu nisi feras me, 
duil, duit-siu to thee, immut about thee, atotchiat vident te, for 
ad-dot-chiat (ad-ciu I see), dtin to us, lin-ni with us, ro-nn 
ain protegat nos, duib, duib-si to you, uaib from you, cotob 
sechaim coerceo vos (cose hold back ; dob pushed between co n- 
and sechaim), For the 2 PL bar is also in use (usually a 
possessive pronoun) : no bor mairfither ye will be slain, ro bur 
face who brought you. 

203. The enclitic elements for the dative and accusative 
of the 3rd person are more difficult to ascertain and can 
scarcely be differentiated from their union with prepositions. 
In the plural there is no distinction of genders. 

As verbal objects (Ace. or Dat.) the following are dis- 
coverable: -d (aspirating) for Neuter, Masc, Pern., rod chluine- 
thar qui id audiverit ; -n (asp.) for Masc, Neut., nin accend non 
eum videt; -a (asp.) for Plural, Neuter, Fern. (?), ra chualatar id 
audiverunt; da (asp.) for Plural, Fern., Neut. (?), conda thanic 
eos adiit ; -a (n-), -d (n-) for Masc., Neut. (?), rom-bertaigestar, 

Personal Pronouns. 


rod m-bertaigedar he shook himself; -s (n-), dos (n-) for Plural, 
Fern., dos n-icfed he would come to them, -s, dos for Plur., Masc, 
Fern., Neut., ros bia eis erit. 

Sometimes the pronominal element is proleptic whilst the 
proper object still follows after it, dos in 
n-gai cetna I throw the same spear after him, Sc. M. 10. 

204, The following is a table of prepositions united with the 
personal pronouns. Only the more important variations are 
given. The forms enclosed in [ ] are from O'Donovan's grammar. 





o, ua Latin a. 



fiad coram 














M. uad 
F. uadi 





do ad 

is infra, < 

5s, lias supra 

re (w-), rem ante 


dom, dam 




Hum, remum reunn, remunn 


dait, duit, deit 




riut, [remut] [romhaibh] 


M. ddu, do 




Ace. remi remib, rempu 

F. di 


rempe rompa 

di de 


ass ex 

iar (w-), iarm post 



dlin, dind 









M. de 
F. di 


essi, esti 

essib, estib 


fri contra 

1. frim, friumm frinni 

2. fritjfriut frib 

3. M. friss friu 
F. frie % fria 


tar trans imb circa 

[thorm] torunn immum immunn 

torut [thorraib] immut immib 

tairis tairsiu imbi impu 
tairse impe 


VI. Pronouns. 



tri per eter inter 

1. trium triunni etrom etrunn 

2. triut triib [eadraf] etruib 

3. M. triit treu, trethu etir etarru 
F. tree, trethi 

la with, through 

sech praeter 









co ad 

1. lemm, liumm lenn, linn [seacham] sechond cuccum cucunn 

2. lat, let lib sechut [seachaibh] cucut cucuib 

3. M. leiss leu, lethu secha seccu, seocu cucci cuccu, cucthi 
F. lee secce cuicce 



•, air pro 

for super 

1. airium 



fornn, forun 

2. airiut 




3. Dat. M. 

airi airib, airthib 

Dat. M. fora, F. /mrt 



airriu, airthiu 

Ace. M. fair, F. forrae 


fo sub 

i (n-), ind in 

1. foum 




2. [Jut] 




3. Dat. M. 

foa foib, fothib 

Dat. indid, Ace. ind 


Ace. M. foi : 

, F. [/m^/ii] Iftitha] 

Dat. iftdft, Ace. mte 


205. These same pronominal elements have also become 
suffixed to verbal forms in the sense of subjects and objects, 
especially often to the forms of the verb substantive. In Old ' 
Irish occur : at thou art, adib ye are, baan, ban simus, con-dan 
ut simus ; so also to bam fui, biam ero, ni pam non ero, ni 
dam non sum, bat sis (ni pat besides ni pa SC. 26), can dollot 
unde venisti (§ 302). And as ace. or dative: ainsiunn prote- 
gat nos (ainis protegat), taithiunn (est nobis) (faith est), tathut 
est tibi, gabsi cepit eum, gabsus cepit eos (gabis cepit), marbthus 
occidit eos, boithus erat eis. 

206. The genitive of pronouns is expressed by preposi- 
tions, e.g. ni Bochvde diib non multi ex eis, but there are also 

Possessive Pronouns, 57 

some distinct genitive forms, in first person dual naihar, in the 
third person di, ae, and de : cechtar nathar uterque nostrum, 
cechtar di, cechtar ae and cechtar de uterque eorum, each di, 
each ae each of them. Old Irish di suum proprium, Gen. inddi 
kavrov sui, PI. inna n-di eaurwv. 

Possessive Pronouns. 

207. The possessive pronouns are : 

Sg. wo, mu (asp.) my do, du (asp.) thy a M. N. (asp.) his, a F. her 

PL ar 7i- our far n-, for n-, bor n- your a n- their. 

208. The pronouns mo and do often lose their vowel before 
an initial vowel, when amalgamated with prepositions they 
also lose their vowel before an initial consonant. Instead of 
do, t then appears, before vowels th; 7n? athir my father, ihZ athair 
thy father. With prepositions : 6m, 6t, tiat a meo, tuo (6); 
dom, dot meo, tuo (do); dim, dit de meo, tuo (di); fom, fot sub 
meo, tuo (fo) ; form, fort super meo, tuo (for) ; frim, frit 
contra meum, tuum (fri); imm, it in meo, tuo (i n-); ocom, 
com (§ 108 b ), icim, iccot apud meum, tuum; immom circa 

209. Of other compounds the following deserve notice : 
iarna after his, iarnar n- after our; rena, riana before his 
(ren-);fria towards his, tria 9 trea through his; inna in his, 
innar n- in our ; md for imma about his, her ; na for inna in 
his; do becomes di (in these possessives) before a : dia to his, 
to her, dia n- to her, diar n- to our. 

210. The possessive pronoun with the infinitive marks 
the pronominal object, less often the subject of the infinitive : is 
coir a thabairt d6ib it is right to give it to them, tair dum berrad 
sa come to shear me, iarna thichtain 6 Rbim when he had come 
from Rome. 

58 VI. Pronouns. 


211. The notion of "self" is expressed by several allied 
composite words, which begin with fe-, fa- (fo-) or ce- 7 ca-: 

fein 1. 2. 3. Sg. cein 1 Sg. faMin 1. 2. 3. Sg.; 

fesin 2. PI. feisin 3. Sg. F. [M.; 3. PI. 

fessin 3. Sg. M.; 3. PL; 2. Sg.; cmn 3. Sg. fadesin 3. Sg. M.; 3 PI.; cadessin 3. Sg. 

fesine 3. Sg. PI. fadesine 3. PI. 

/eiarae 2. PL; 3 Sg. F.; 3 PL fadeisne 2. PL 

fanisin 1. PL canisin 1. PI. 

For fadein, fodein the form bodein is also found. The forms 
/«ra andj^ssm are perhaps identical. 

Relative Pronouns. 

212. The relative pronoun a n- does not change for case, 
number or gender, and sounds like the nominative and 
accusative singular neuter of the article. It had originally an 
initial s, which is yet to be traced when it is compounded with 
prepositions which have a final consonant. Frissa n-, lasa, n- 
(§ 174); by composition with do is produced dia n- (cf. § 209). 
It stands either at the head of the relative clause or after the 
particle which may precede the verbal form : a n-asbiur quod 
dico, tresa m-bi per quam est, hua m-bi e quibus fit, do-m-bert 
quern attulit, a forcital for-n-dob-canar doctrina quae vobis 
praecipitur (forchun praecipio). 

213. The relative pronoun is often omitted, especially after 
the relatively employed negative particle na and the indefinite 
nech (§ 220), but often its absence is only an apparent one : it 
he do-r-raidchiuir sunt hi quos redemit (for do-an-ro-aidchiuir). 

214. The relative pronoun is also used as an explanatory 
conjunction, e.g. ron-gnith that it has happened : less often 
by itself in the sense of " when," but it is a frequent ingredient 
of compounded conjunctions, e.g. ara n- that (final), dia -n 

Interrogative Pronouns. 59 

(prep, di) if; and in the same way in tan during, when, because, 
6re, Hair because, amal as are followed by the relative pronoun, 
in tan m-bimmi cum sumus, huare m-bis quia est, amal fo-n- 
gniter sicut voluntur (fo-gniu I serve). 

Interrogative Pronouns. 

215. Cia, ce, ci are the interrogative pronouns and are 
indeclinable being used without distinction of gender for singular 
and plural, substantially and adjectivally. Besides these 
the forms ca, co are discoverable in the expressions cate, cote 
quis est, quid est; cateet quid sunt; cani, cini why not; can 
whence. Coich is also used as a synonym of cia : coich andso 
who is this here % 

216. In order to distinguish the genders the personal pro- 
noun is added : ce he quis; ce si, cisi quae; ced, cid (for ce ed) 

217. The question is always framed so as to have the 
interrogative pronoun in the nominative case ; other cases 
are expressed by an indefinite or relative pronoun following : 
cia dia tibertais rigi to whom they should give the kingship ; cia 
ar neoch dorrignis ad quid hoc fecisti? When the interrogative 
pronoun is used adjectivally the flexion takes place in the 
noun only cia i n-olcaib in quibus malis. 

218. Ce ret what thing, ce airm what place, ce indas what 
condition, fuse to cret, cairm, cindas. These are short interro- 
gative sentences which the special meaning of the question 
commonly follows in a relative sentence : cia airm i n-dom 
facca what the place in which thou hast seen me = where hast 
thou seen me % ; cinnas rainnfiiher what the manner (in which) 
it shall be divided = how shall it be divided ? Cindas associated 
with a genitive paraphrases the Latin qualis : cindas in choirp 
i n-eseirset quali corpore resurgent ? 

60 VI. Pronouns. 

219. Cia, ce with the conjunctive is used in the sense of 
the Latin quisquis and quamquam ; ce be, cipe quisquis est ; 
cia no betis fir in chdicid uli immond even if the men of the 
whole province were around us. 

Indefinite Pronouns. 

220. Nech quisquam, aliquis, without distinction of gender 
is used substantially and is declined : Nom. nech, Gen. neich, 
Dat. do neuch, neoch, Ace. nech. Nech with a relative sen- 
tence following it (without a relative pronoun) answers to the 
Latin is, especially to the neuter id, and to the ejus of id quod, 
ejus quod and so on: do denum neich asberat ad agendum id 
quod dicunt. 

221. Nach (ndcli) ullus, aliqui, Neuter na n- is used adjec- 
tivally. The following inflected forms are further observable : 
Dative do nach, Accusative, Masculine and Feminine nach n-, 
Genitive Feminine nacha. 

222. " Something," the Latin aliquid, is usually expressed 
by the word ni, which according to Zeuss is a substantive 
meaning res : mor ni magnum aliquid; na sothe i. ni dofuisim 
terra, gloss on terrse fetus, i. e. quod generat terra. Ani (later 
inni) is very often used in the sense of id quod, with a relative 
sentence following, a form which may represent both ni with 
the article and the pronominal ani (§ 195). 

223. Cdch used substantially, with the article in each 
each, without distinction of gender : Genitive caich, Dative do 

224. Cech, each every, used adjectivally : Neuter cech n-, 
each n- ; Genitive, Masculine and Neuter caich, cech, each, 
Feminine cecha, cacha; Dative, Masculine, Feminine and 
Neuter cech, each; Accusative Masculine, Feminine and 
Neuter cech n-, each n- ; Plural Feminine cecha, cacha ; Dative 

Indefinite Pronouns. 61 

225. The adjectival form cech, each is often associated 
with oen: cech oen every one. When followed by a numeral 
cech, each is distributive : each da bini (§ 236). 

226. Nechtar one of two, cechtar either of two. 

227. The adjectival pronouns nach and cech, each are often 
followed by di, ae in the sense of the Latin eorum (§ 206) : each 
di, cachce ; besides cechtar di uterque in the same sense also 
cechtar de. 

228. Aile and alaile, araile alius, vie, uile whole, all, are 
declined like noun-stems in ia (§ 115) with the exception of 
the Neut. JSTom. Ace. Sg. aill, alaill, araill aliud : uile signifies 
whole, when placed after the substantive ; all, when it precedes 
the substantive. Distinct from aile is ala (indecl.) ind ala 
(indara) alteruter : ind ala n-di (§ 206) ; ind ala... alaile unus 
(alter)... alter. 



229. Cardinal numbers. The dots accompanying 6en. ..deac 
11 and so on notify the position of the substantive. 

1 din, den 40 

2 da, F. di, N. dan-; de- (Comp.) 50 

3 tri, F. teoir, N. tri; tire- (Comp.) 60 

4 cethir, F. cetheoir, N. cetftir 70 

5 coic, c-#ic 80 

6 se 90 

7 8«cfct w- 100 

8 oct, ocht 7i- 118 

9 wtfi n- 120 

10 deich n~ 150 

11 den... dec or deac 152 

12 dd...dSac 180 

13 tri... deac 200 

14 cethir... deac 210 

15 coic... deac 400 

16 se...deac 1000 

17 *ecfc* ra- ...d&w 2000 

18 octa 7i- ...deac 5000 

19 w<ft rc- ...deac 10000 

20 ./icfa? 12000 

21 den...fichet or den... or fichit 100000 
25 cdic.fichet or coic... ar fichit 1000000 
30 tricha 

cethorcha or da fichit 


sesca or tri fichit 

sechtmoga, -o 

ochtmoga or cethir fichit 


cet or coic fichit or da cdicait 

ocht deac ar chet ch4t 

cdica... ar cMt or tri cdicait 

ddu coicat ar chet 

ochtmoga... ar chet or ndi fichit 

da cet (or cethra coecait) 

deich ar dib cetaib 

cethir chit 


di mili 

coic mili 

deich mili 

di mili dec or da s€ mile 

cet mile 

mile mile 



230. The inflexion of da two will be found in the Declen- 
sion paradigmata. Besides da there is a form ddu, do for use 
without any substantive. Three is thus declined : 




N. tri 

teoir, teora 

tri (aspirating) 

G. tri n- 

teora n- 

tri n- 

D. trib 



A. tri 


tri (aspirating). 

In the same way cethir, Fern, cetheoir, cetheora % Neuter cethir 
(aspirating) besides a form cethri, cethre for all genders and 

231. The tens are masculine and are declined like cara 
§ 134: fiche 20, Gen.Jichet, Dat. fichit; tricha 30, Gen. trichat, 
Dat. trichit or trichait and ' in the same way the succeeding 

232. cet is a neuter stem in a (§ 110), mile a feminine stem 

233. Ordinal numbers. 

1 cet- (in comp.), cetne 



2 tdnise, ala 


oinmad . . .deac 

3 tris, tress- (comp.) 


ala . . . deac, ind ala . . . deac 

4 cethramad 



5 coiced 


cethramad. . .deac 

6 sessed 



7 sechtmad 


tris...-flcJiet (Gen. of the Card.) 

8 ochtmad 


sechtmad . . . cethorchat 

9 nomad 



In the year 565 isin choiciud bliadain sescat ar ccccc (coic 


VII. Numerals. 


. Numeral substantives. 

(a) for persons. 

(b) for things. 



oinar M. one person 

dias F. two persons 

triar three persons : three men 



dede duality 
trede triad 




naor-seser, -feser 


The adverbial dative singular is particularly often used with 
the possessive pronoun: meisse moinur I alone; a triur they... 
by threes, three of them and so on. 

235. Multiplicative expression's are formed by the prepo- 
sition fo, fa (under) with the cardinal numbers : fo di, fa di 
twice, fo thri, fo ocht, fo deich, fo ocht fichet (genitive of the 
Cardinal number) vicies octies, fo choic sechtmogat septuagies 
quinquies, dinfecht, oenecht once (fecht time). 

236. Distributives are expressed by prefixing the pro- 
noun each each, each 6en singuli, each da bini, each tri terni, 
and so on. 



237. Prepositions governing the dative are : 

do, du (asp.) to co n- with fiad Latin coram 

di (asp.) of, Latin de re n- ria n- before oc near, Latin apud 

6, Ha (asp.) from, Latin a iar n- after U under 

a ass out of, Latin ex 6s over. 

238. Prepositions governing the accusative are : 

co to, Latin ad tar, dar over, Latin trans eter Latin inter 

la by, witb, through sech Latin praeter, ultra echtar Latin extra 

fri towards cen (asp.) without r ol on account of 

tri through imb, imm (asp.) around, Latin circa amal as. 

239. Prepositions governing both dative and accusative : 
ar (asp.) before, for fo (asp.) under 

i n~ Latin in for upon. 

240. Nominal prepositions, which govern the genitive : 

ar chiunn) before iar M } timchell around 

ar chenn \ for c&lu I behind, ddig, fo ddig* 

i n-agid towards i n-dead, -diaidl after fo, im ddgin I on account 

do eis behind, after i n-degaid j fo bith | of. 

tar eis, esi after, for dochum n- to fo blthin J 

L G. 


66 VIII. Prepositions. 

241. Fiad, oc, is, 6s, la, cen, echtar, ol, amal of the above 
prepositions (§ 237 — 239) do not occur in composition with 
verbal forms. Co ad and 6, ua from, are not completely ascer- 
tained. The following are only preserved in composition : ad- 
Latin ad ; aith-, aid- (ath-, ad-) again, Latin re-, iterum ; ind-, 
inn- Gothic and-, od- Gothic ut-. 

242. Some prepositions have in composition an additional 
form in m: com- beside co n-; iarm- beside %ar n-; rem for re n- ; 
tairm-, tarm- for tar; tremi-, trimi-, trem- for tri; sechm- for 
neck. The extended form interchanges with the simple form : 
ronaitecht (con-aith-techl) petivit, comtachtmar petivimus. Cf. 
iarom postea, riam antea. 

Of fri there appears in composition beside the older form 
frith- an augmented form friss-, j r 'ess-: frescsiu expectation, 
for fres-acsiu (§ 5 4), fris-racacha speravi (fris-ro-ad-cacha). 

243. In Old Irish as in the older periods of other languages 
the verbs were often compounded with more than one prepo- 
sition : ad-chon-darc conspexi (aith-con); ^m-<ii-6mmcircumcido; 
adoparar offertur (aith-od-berar, § 73). In many cases these 
prepositions are blended with one another, and are commonly 
only distinguishable when a pronominal object (§ 201) or one 
of the particles ro and do (§ 251) has intervened between them. 
In case of blending the preposition do has an initial t. The 
following frequently occur : e. g. 




from do- air-, 




, tad- 



, -aid- 




t6-, tu- 


do -fo- 

tOr-, tuar-, 















do etar- 


tod-, tHad- 
diud-, (tiud-) 
faith-, fath- 
fod-, fuad- ; 
do-fuis-, tuis- 

from do-od- 
„ di-od- 
„ fo-aith- 
tuad- ,, fo-od ; do-fo- 
„ do-fo-ess- 









244. These blended forms may again be compounded with 
other prepositions: tHarascbat proferunt from tuar (do-for)-as- 
gabat ; teccomnocuir accidit, from ted (do-aith)-com-nacuir. 

24:5. In composition and union other phonetic occurrences 
are to be noticed. 

(a) Assimilation of contiguous consonants : ad-chiu, at- 
chiu video (aith or ad?), perf. always acca; at-bail and epil 
intent; frecart respondit for frith-gart beside fris-gart; adgld- 
dur appello, beside the inf. accaldam ; atreba habitat, for ad- 
treba; cunutgim, architector, for con-ud-tegim ; forocrad in- 
dicates est, for fo-ro-od-garad ; tuasulcud resolutio, for do-fo-od- 
salciud; teccomnocuir accidit, for do-aith-com-nacuir ; Urge 
surrectio, for ess-rige. 

(b) Dropping of vowels: aisndis exponere, for as-indis ; 
tecmallad colligere, for do-aith-com-allad ; frecndirc prsesens, 
for frith-con- dire. 

(c) Dropping of consonants : taimgert promisit, for do air - 
con-gert; coimthecht convoy, protection, for com-im-thecht ; 
dochoimmarraig spoliavit, for do-chom-imm-ar-raig. 

246. Sometimes that preposition of a double composite 
which is especially important for the sense, is placed once again 
at the beginning : comtherchomrac congregatio, for com-do-air- 
com-rac, hUatuasailcthm absolutum, for tiad-do-fo-od-sailcthce ; 
asreracht surrexit, for ass-ro-ess-racht ; so also ess-Urge resur- 
rectio, besides Urge (i.e. ess-rige) with obscured preposition. 


68 VIIL Prepositions. 

247. The preposition do receives the tenuis in initial 
sound not only in union with other prepositions, but also in 
close association with a radical syllable : ioimlim, tomlim con- 
sumo, besides domelat consumunt; tabur, tabraim, taibrim I 
give, besides dobiur ; tarat dedit, besides dorat ; tic venit, for 
do-ic ; tanac veni, for do-anac. In the infinitive, where the 
union of preposition and verb is irresolvable, the tenuis also 
appears invariably : tomailt consumere, tabairt give, tochimm 
stride (cf. § 77, docking he strides). 

247 b . The same occurs often with the particle do in its 
union with pronominal suffixes (§ 251), especially when pre- 
ceded by the preposition (not the conjunction) co n~ which then 
loses its n before the following tenuis : cotob sechaim I hinder 
you, for con-do-b-sechaim, coscuim I blame ; cotagart convocavit 
eos, for con-da-gart, pres. congairim; cutanmela he will grind 
us up, for con-do-n-mela, pres. comlim I grind up. 


248. The Old Irish has three conjugations ("series" in 
the Grammatica Celtica) the forms of which correspond 
severally to the Latin third, first and fourth conjugation. 
The distinction between the conjugations fades in the onward 
course of time more and more. 

249. Paradigms of fourteen distinct forms of tense and 
mood can be set forth all of which however are not formed 
in any single verb. 

1 Present Indicative 

8 Reduplicated Future 

2 Present Conjunctive 

9 Reduplicated Second Future 

3 Imperative 

10 B-Future 

4 Second Present 

11 B-Second Future 

5 Present of habit 

12 S-Future 

6 T-Preterite 

13 S-Second Future 

7 S-Preterite 

14 Perfect 

In addition some less well established forms are found 
which are exhibited § 304 et seq. 

250. The second present answers in use to the Latin 
imperfect indicative and imperfect conjunctive. The second 
future answers to the French conditional. The perfect has a 

70 IX. Verb. 

preterite signification. Most verbs form only one preterite and 
a future, derivative verbs (in the II. and III. conjugations) 
only the S-preterite and the B-future. These two tenses have, 
in Old Irish, also made their appearance in radical verbs by 
the side of other forms of their kind. 

251. An untranslatable particle no, ro frequently stands 
before the verbal form. The verbal particle no precedes the 
present indicative, the second present, the present of habit, 
and the future. Ro precedes the preterite, the conjunctive 
present, the future, the second present when it is used as im- 
perfect conjunctive. Bo further gives a preterite signification 
to the present indicative, and to the present of habit and some- 
times gives the signification of the Latin futurum exactum to 
the present conjunctive in subordinate sentences. The verbal 
particle do is used less precisely. In the older language it is 
often used merely as a support for an enclitically affixed pro- 
nominal object (§ 202), and in this function it must be dis- 
tinguished from the preposition do which forms compound 

252. The particle to is in Old Irish very often placed 
between the prepositions or between the preposition and the 
verbal form of the compound verb, but this is not done when 
a negative (ni, nd, ndd) or the interrogative particle in pre- 
cedes the verb : for-ro-chon-gart praecepit, present for-con-gur ; 
durairngert he prophesied, for do-ro-air-con-gert, cf. tairngire 
prophecy ; fodaraithmine (qui) id memoret, for fo-(for- ?)da-ro- 
aith-mine, cf. for-aith-minedar deponent memorat, for-aith-met 
memoria; as-ru-bartatar dixerunt, beside asbert dixit; at-ro- 
threb habitavit, later ro aittreb ; dorolgetha remissa sunt, for do- 
ro-lugetha, present doluigim remitto; doreilced for do-ro-leced 
(preterite passive), present dolecim I leave, relinquish ; torchair 
he killed, for do-ro-chair ; foracab reliquit, for fo-ro-aith-gab, 
present fdcbaim relinquo, arna cerbarthar ne dicatur, for ess-ro- 
berthar, present asbiur dico ; atraracht surrexit, for aith-ro-ass- 
racht beside asreracht, § 246. 

Verb. 71 

253. The passive has, with the exception of the preterite 
the same tenses as the active. A deponent flexion resembles 
the passive form as in Latin. All tenses of the active voice 
are represented in the deponent except the second tenses. 
The deponent verb which in Old Irish already frames active 
forms as well, gradually disappears altogether as a peculiar 
verbal class, but deponent forms enter into the usual active 
flexion. This happens most often in the conjunctive present 
and in the third person singular of the S- preterite. In Old 
Irish the perfect active and the T- preterite have already a 
deponent flexion in the plural. 

254. The present indicative and present conjunctive, the 
S-preterite, and the future have two sets of forms in the 
active voice. Forms (forma3 conjunctse) with a shorter ter- 
mination appear if the verb is compounded or when the 
verb is preceded by one of the particles no, to (goto that) 
do, ni y nad. Forms (formal absolute) with a longer termi- 
nation, on the other hand, appear when the verb stands by 
itself. Even in Old Irish in the first person singular of the 
present indicative this difference is not carried out thoroughly. 
Modern Irish has only the absolute flexion in the present and 
in the future, but in the preterite which is usually preceded by 
ro or do, the conjoined form only is preserved. 

This distinction between conjoined and absolute forms may 
also be observed in the passive and deponent. 

255. The flexion of the five first tenses (§ 249), those 
which may in the widest sense of the word be called present 
forms, may be taken together. Paradigms : Conjugation I. 
berimm I carry, do-blur I give, Conjugation II. caHmm I love, 
Conjugation III. lecim I leave (dolleciu), dollecim I set free, 
throw. As to the distinction of absolute (abs.) and conjoined 
(conj.) see § 254. 

















Sg. 1 berimm 



wo charu 



2 beri 



no chari 



3 berld 



no char a 



rel. beres 



PI. 1 bermme 



no charam 






2 berthe 



no charid 



3 berit 



no charat 



rel. berte 




Sg. 1 bera 



coro char 



2 bere 



coro chare 



3 berid 



coro char a 



rel. beras 



PI. 1 bermme doberam 


coro charam 



2 berthe 



coro charid 



3 berit 



coro charat 



rel. berte 


















2 heir Mr, 









3 berad 







1 no berinn 

no bermmis 

no charinn 

no charmmis 



2 no bertha 

no berthe 

no cliartha 

no charthe 



3 no bered 

no bertU 

no charad 

no chartis 






3 no berend 

no charand 

no lecend 


Active. 73 

256. In the II. Conjugation instead o£ -imm, -i, -id, -it, 
gradually -aim, -ai, -aid, -ait, are more and more regularly 
written, especially after a broad vowel in the preceding syllable: 
caraim I love, molaim I praise, scaraim I separate, comalnaim 
I fulfil, adcobraim I desire, biathaim I nourish, techtaim I 

257. In the III. Conjugation on the other hand the 
slender vowel of the flexion-syllable enters more and more 
regularly into the preceding syllable : leicim I leave (§ 255), 
dolleicem we leave; dlim, no diliu I implore, bdigim I fight, 
guidim I ask, loiscim I burn, fodailim I divide, dirmim I 
count, suidigim I set, ainmnigim I name. 

258. In this tendency to the assimilation of vowels the 
verbs of the I. Conjugation join the II. Conjugation or the III. 
Conjugation, so that in Modern Irish only these two conjuga- 
tions appear to exist, gabaim I take, maraim I stay, canaim 
I sing, tiagaim I go, gonaim I wound. On the other hand: 
saigim adeo, fodaimim I endure, dligim I deserve, cingim I 
step, lingim I leap. Old Irish, moreover, is not always con- 

259. The doubled m of the absolute flexion in the 1 sg. 
and pi. is commonly written single. Before terminations with 
consonantal initial sound the suppression of the thematic vowels 
does not occur, in cases where too great an accumulation of 
consonants would result : predchimme praedicamus (II.). 

260. Compound verbs even in Old Irish have frequently 
in 1 sg. present the form in -im : for-chanim beside for-ckun, 
doceo, for-chon-grimm beside for-con-gur praecipio, fo-daimim 
patior, dollecim I leave, I throw, atchim gloss on ateoch I ask 
(ad-teoch), 3 ateich. In Middle Irish in the I. Conjugation 
forms also appear with terminal u, as in the II. and III. Con- 
jugations : tongu for an older tong I swear (for do-fong ?). 
Some verbs in t of the I. Conjugation are irregularly formed in 
the 3 sg. of the conjoined flexion: do-diat sistit, 1 do-diut sisto, 

74 IX. Verb. 

tad-bat demonstrat, pass. sg. 3 tad-badar demonstratur, tin-fet 
inspirat, do-in-fedam inspiramus, tin-feth, -fed aspiratio. 

261. In the I. Conjugation all types of the Latin III. Con- 
jugation are again found: alim I bring up (pret. § 266, f. § 284), 
congarim I call together, frecraim 1 answer (for frith-garim 
pret. § 266, fut. § 277), atbail he dies (§ 2Q6, fut. § 277), 
fodaimim I suffer (pret. § 266, perf. dep. § 349, fut. § 277), 
mar aim I remain (fut. § 277), saigim I seek for, gabim I take 
(pret. § 271, fut. § 277), canim I sing (perf. § 290, fut. § 275) 
as Latin ago, alo. 

melim I grind (pret. § 266, f. § 277), celim I conceal (pret. 
§ 266, fut. § 277), rethim I run (perf. § 295), cunutgim I build 
(perf. § 295), cuintgim I ask, I demand (pret. § 266, fut. § 287), 
nigim I wash (perf. § 295, fut. § 287), ithim I eat (fut. § 287), 
as Latin rego, tego. 

orcaim I kill (§ 284), go®aiw> I kill (perf. § 295, fut. § 280), 
like Latin molo. 

tiagaim I go (fut. § 285), rtadaim I drive, as Latin dico, 
Greek ot€6y/d. 

ibim, I drink, sessaim I stand (dep. § 336, pret. § 340), as 
Latin bibo, sisto. 

ad-grennim I pursue (perf. § 295, fut. § 287), fo-gliunn, 
-glennim I learn (perf. § 295), cingim I go (perf. § 295, fut. 
§ 288), lingim I jump (perf. § 295, fut. § 288), bongaim I break 
(pret. § 266, fut. § 287), ticim I come (§ 247, perf. § 299, 
fut. § 287, 284), as Latin prehendo, pingo ; aingim protego 
sg. 3 (conjoined) no ainich (pret. § 266, fut. § 286, inf. § 370) 
is unique in its kind. 

lenim adhsereo (perf. § 300, fut. § 276), glenim adhsereo (perf. 
§ 298, fut. § 276), renim I give (perf. § 300, fut. § 276), crenim 
I buy (perf. § 298, fut. § 310), benim I strike (perf. § 296, fut. 
§ 310), clunim I hear (perf. § 301, fut. § 280), semim consero, as 
Latin lino, cerno. 

Active. 75 

262. In the II. Conjugation there are : 

(a) Denominative verbs (pret. § 269, fut. § 282) like the 
Latin laudo, Greek Tt/xaw.- biathaim I nourish, from biath food; 
adcobraim I desire, from accobor will, desire; marbaim I kill, 
from marb dead. 

(b) Radical verbs like the Latin dorrw, sedo : molaim I praise 
(pret. § 269, fut. § 282), scaraim I separate (pret. § 269, fut. 
§ 277), in-sddaim jacio. 

263. In the same way there are in the III. Conjugation : 

(a) Denominative (pret. § 269, fut. § 282), like the Latin 
custodio, Greek aAAao-<ra>, <£vAacra-w : dirmim I count, from drain 
number; cumachtaigim, potior, from cunjbachte might, cumachtach 
mighty ; foillsigim I reveal, from follus, foillsech manifest, 
sudigini I set, from sude seat ; ailigim muto, from aile alius. 

(b) Radical verbs like the Latin fodio, Greek Tetpw, raWw : 
gudimm, no guidiu, I ask (perf. § 290), scuirim I loosen (pret. 
§ 269), scuchim discedo (perf. § 297), no rdidiu I speak (pret. 
§ 269), tibim I laugh (pret. § 269), rigim I stretch (perf. § 295). 

264. To the III. Conjugation also belong the verbs : dim 

1 see (§ 54, perf. § 295, fut. § 276) and gniim I do (pret. § 273, 
fut. § 277), with their compounds, e.g. adchiu, deccu I see, 
dogniu I make, fogniu I serve. The conjunctive of dogniu is 
noteworthy : sg. 1 dogneo, 2 dogne } 3 dogne, pi. 1 dognem, 

2 dogneid, 3 dognet. Cf . biu I am. 

264 b . The verb gudimm I ask, varies between the III. and 
I. Conjugation: no guidiu rogo III., nosn-guid rogat eos I. 

264 c . The radical syllable of certain verbs is in many 
forms difficult to recognise : 

Root av ; con-oi, for-com-ai servat, imperat. com-id servate, 
counted in the Grammatica Celtica as of Conjug. L, but the 3 
pres. pass, for-dom-chom-aither servor (§ 329) shows it to belong 
to the III. Conjugation. 


IX. Verb. 

Root sav; no soi-siu avertis, do-soi convertit, co ru th6i con- 
vertitur, do-soat convertunt, pass, imme-soither quo convertitur 
(Ml. 61 a ) III.; tintHuth (do-ind-south) interpretatio, translation. 

Root (p)ent : con etat assequuntur, pass, ni etar non inveni- 
tur; do-eit, teit, it, adit, imperat. sg. 3 taet toet (for taeted, cf. § 
64), he shall go, come, pi. 2 tdit (for taitid) come, pret. (or 
perf.?) dothdet, tothoet ; fris-tait (for -taitet) they go against, fut. 
§ 287; tuitim I fall (do-fo-do-etim, § 54), fut. § 287. 

Root enc; ticim (for do-icim) I come, ricim (for ro-icim) I 
reach, con-icim I am able, fut. § 287, 284, perf. § 299. 


265. The letter t is joined immediately to the root. The 
plural in the 1st and 3rd person has a deponent flexion (cf. the 
perfect § 290). Paradigm: as-biur dico. 

Sg. 1 asruburt PI. 1 asrubartmar 

2 asrubirt 2 asrubartid 

3 asrubert, -hart 3 asrubartatar. 

266. In the same way the 
jugation the radical syllable of 
or a vowel, form their preterite. 

following verbs of the I. Con- 
which terminates in r, I, c, g, 


Past 3 Sg. 


Past 3 Sg. 

atbail (sg. 3), 

, atrubalt mortuus est ; 


conaitecht quaesivit; 


alt educavit ; 


toracht venit ; 


celt celavit ; 

arutaing t 

arutacht restauravit, 


gelt depastus est ; 

refecit ; 


dorumalt consumpsit; 


bocht broke, harvested; 
topacht beat off; 


frisgart respondit ; 

no anich, 

anacht protexit; 


arroet aceepit; 


iarfact, iarmifoacJit 


do-r-et velavit ; 

quaesivit ; 


ro det passus est ; 


inchoisecht signiiica- 


dith suxit; 



ro ort delevit ; 


doindnacht tribuit. 


eracht surrexit ; 



:!:. . Isolated preterites of this species are further: atbath mortuus 
est; siacht, ro-siact, riacht pervenit. 

267. The u in the 1 sg. is not always evident : doret 
defendi (pres. doemim), conaitecht quaesivi; and in 2 sg. the i is 
not always evident: comtacht-su quaesisti; in the 3 sg. in Middle 
Irish, forms in i are also found : birt gave birth to, atrubairt. 
In the plural forms the a in the radical syllable is not regularly 
employed : asbertatar dixerunt ; in the 3 pi. an active flexion 
also now and then occurs ad-ro-bartat obtulerant, geltat pasti 
sunt, conaitechtat quaesierunt. 

268. In the later language the T-preterite passes into the 
flexion of the S-preterite : sg. 1 tormaltus consumpsi, 2 do-r-ar- 
gertais-sui promisisti (tairngire promise, for do-air-con~gaire), pi. 
3 atbertsat dixerunt: Modern Irish dubhras dixi; ro geltsat 
they fed; atbathsat they died (Old Irish atbatJiatar) ; altsat 
they educated. 


269. The S-preterite, like the B-future (§ 282), is chiefly 
found in verbs of the II. and III. Conjugations. The denomi- 
native verbs are limited to this preterite. The letter s is joined 
to the present-stem. 








1 ro charm 




2 ro charis 




3 ro char 




1 ro eharsam 




2 ro charsid 




3 ro charsat 

car sit 



270. For caris frequently carais is found, and in the 
same way scarais secessit and so on; for dollecius often dol- 
lecus, and so also imrordus for im-ro-radius cogitavi. 

78 IX. Verb. 

271. Among verbs of the I. Conjugation in Old Irish 
ro gabus cepi, present gabim ought to be mentioned here. In 
Middle Irish, and in the later language, the S-preterite is 
a common form in many other verbs of the I. Conjugation. 
As to the formation of the T-preterite and of the perfect on 
the analogy of the S-preterite see § 268 and § 303. 

272. The 3rd sg. present which has become preterite by 
the prefixing of ro must be distinguished from the 3rd sg. of- 
the conjunctive flexion: preterite ro-chreit, pres. ro chreti cre- 
didit, ro rigi he stretched out. 

273. The preterite of do-gniu facio exhibits irregular 
appearances: sg. 1 dorignius, 2 dorignis, 3 dorigni, dorigeni, 
dorigenai, pi. 1 dorigensam, 2 dorigensid, 3 dorigensat. (Cf. 

274. In the 3 sg. a deponent flexion is often found: ro 
charastar instead of ro char, ro suidigestar instead of ro suidig, 

8 and 9. reduplicated future with conditional. 

275. The radical syllable is (a) retained, (6) after thrusting 
out of its vowel, contracted with the syllable of reduplication 
to one syllable with e (§ 75). This form of future is followed 
in Old Irish especially by those verbs, the radical syllable of 
which has a terminal sound in r, I, m or n (cf. the S-future 
§ 285). Paradigms : of (a) canim Latin cano, for-chun I teach 
(perf. cechan § 290); of (b) berimm I bear, do-biur I give (pretv 
burt § 265). 







1 forcechun, 

cechna, cechnat 


Mra, berat 

2 forcechnae, 




3 forcechna, 

cechnid rel. cechnas 


berid rel. beras 

1 forcechnam, 


dober am y 

termini, -mlt 

2 forcechnid, 




3 forcechnat, cechnit (rel. cechnite) dobSrat, berit rel. btrte. 

Active. 79 


Sg. 1 cechninn PI. cechnimmis Sg. birinn PI. bermmls 

2 bertha berthe 

3 cechnad cechnitis hirad birtis. 

276. Forms with (a) retained radical syllable and re- 
duplication : 

ni didemam non patiemur, fodidmat patientur, perf. dep. 
damar, pres. fo-daimim I; 

gignid nascetur, perf. dep. genar, pres. dep. gnaither gigni- 

gegna I shall kill, perf. gegon, pres. gonaim I; 

no gigius rogabo, pi. 2 gigeste, to gigsed petierit, imperat. ni 
gessid nolite precari ; 

adcichitis they would see, perf. acca, pres. adchiu III; 

dogega eliget, perf. dordigu elegit, pres. togaim (root gus) I ; 

asririu impendam, perf. asrir, pres. asrenim I; 

fo7£tf adhaerebunt, perf. &7, pres. lenim I; 

no giuglad adhaereret, perf. ro <^m7, pres. glenim I ; 

fo-chichur I shall throw, f ut. sec. sg. 3 fochichred with r for 
rr from re?, if it belongs to Jbcheird he throws (§ 295), with 
which it stands together L. U. p. 70 a , 4. 

To which a reduplicated S-future (§ 288) may be added. 

277. As (b) dober, bera are formed: 

meraid manebit, pres. marim I ; 

frisgera respondebit, pret. frisgart, pres. sg. 3 frisgair I ; 
scermait discedemus, pret. sg. 3 scarais, pret. scarim II; 
conscera destruet, pres. coscraim II; 
atbela morietur, pret. atrubalt, pres. sg. 3 atbail I; 
ebela educabit, perf. sg. 3 ebail, pres. eblim; 
nod eel quod non celabo, pret. ro chelt, pres. celim I; 
tomela consumet, pret. dorumalt, pres. tomlim I; 
dogen, digeon faciam, pret. dorignius, pres. dogniu III ; 

80 IX. Verb. 

etir-genat experituri sunt, pres. itar-gninim sapio prudentia ; 
cossenat contendent, pres. cosnaim; 

du-em-sa protegam, due ma vindicabit, pret. doret velavit; 
fodema patietur beside fodidmat patientur, perf. damar, 
pret. det, pres. fodaimim I ; 

nod lemad who would dare it, pres. dep. ru-laimur audeo III ; 
gebas qui capiet, pret. ro gabus, pres. gdbim I. 

278. The flexion of this future recalls the conjunctive of 
the present. The 1 sg. of the conjoined flexion has not this con- 
junctive type, e.g. forcechun (formed as in the indie, present 
dobiur, dobur) ; asririu impendain deviates also in the 3 sg. 
asriri appendat (cf. § 210). 

279. By its flexion, the future without reduplication doreg, 
raga, veniam, belongs to this formation : 

conj. abs. condit. 

Sg. 1 doreg rega, riga, ragat doreginn 

2 dorega rega, raga rigtha 

3 dorega ragaid, rel. ragas do ragad 
PI. 1 doregam rigmi, regmait 

2 doregaid rigthi 

3 doregat regait na rachdais 
The oldest form is that with e in the radical syllable; 

instead of it may be found i or a, the latter under the in- 
fluence of the conjunctive a of this form. If it is found 
occasionally written dorega, rigad (with a long vowel), this 
is a leaning towards dobera. 

280. The formation mentioned under (a) disappears in 
the progress of time. Old Irish even displays fodema beside 
fodidma patietur, gena beside gegna I shall kill; forchanub 

(B-future § 282) beside for-ceckun docebo. Also addition of 
the character of the B-future can in isolated cases be proved : 
ririub for Old Irish ririu vendam; con cechlafat audient with 
the fuk dep. ro-chechladar § 346. So also under form (b) the 
Old Irish Mr at feram gives origin to Modern Irish bearfad. 



281. Most Old Irish futures with e have changed this 
character to eo in the later language, e. g. Modern Irish eibeolad 
I shall die, pres. eiblim (Old Irish sg. 1 atbel, pres. sg. 3 atbail), 
coise6nad I shall defend, pres. cosnaim, coingeobad I shall hold, 
pres. congbhaim (a composite verb from Old Irish gabim capio), 
freigeorad I shall answer, pres. freagraim. The verbs in -igim 
and other denominatives have in a remarkable way followed 
this form: maire6bhad I shall kill, pres. marbhaim (from Old 
Irish marb dead), ceingeolad I shall tie, pres. ceanglaim (from 
Old Irish cengal, cingulum), foillsedchad I shall show, pres. foill- 
sighim (from Old Irish follus apertus). 


282. This form occurs like the S-preterite (§ 269) especially 
in the II. and III. conjugations. The denominatives are confined 
to this future. It takes its name from the analogy to the Latin 
amabo, of which the characteristic is traced back to the root bhu. 

The character b or /is affixed to the present-stem. 

10. FUTURE. 



carfa, -fat, 

carfid, rel. carfas, 
carjimme, -mit, 

3 carfit, rel. carfite, 

no charub 
no charfe 
no char fa 
no charfam 
no charfid 
no charfat 


Uicfe, -fet, 

leicfid, rel. lecfes, 
Uicfimme, -mit, 
leicfit, rel. leicfite, 



1 carfinn 

2 carfetha 

3 carfad 

PI. carfimmis 

Sg. 1 Uicflnn 

2 leicfetha 

3 leicfed 

PI. Uicfimmxs 

283. The otherwise suppressed thematic vowel of the 
present remains before the characteristic of the future, when 

I. G t 6 

82 IX. Verb. 

its suppression would lead to too great an accumulation of 
consonants. Behind the retained vowel, b instead of/* appears 
as characteristic of the future : predchibid prgedicabit ; folnibthe 
regnabitis; do-sn-aidlibea visitabit eos, pres. do-da-aidlea II. 
adit earn. 

284. The B-future is often used by the side of other 
futures: ni aicfea non videbit, beside ad-cichitis, pres. adchiu; 
geinfes qui nascetur beside gignid (g 276). It is also and more 
and more in Later Irish formed from verbs of the I. conjuga- 
tion : do-icfa, ticfa veniet beside the S-future, tis veniam, pres. 
ticim I come; arom-fo-imfea accipiet me, pres. ar-fo-imim acci- 
pio, nodn-ailfea educabit eum, pres. alim; oirgfid internciet (also 
S-preterite oirgset devastaverunt beside the T-preterite ro ort 
§ 266), pres. orgim orcim § 67; dot-emfet-su vindicabunt te (Ml. 
112c), cf. § 277. 


285. This future has very often a conjunctive sense. Like 
the reduplicated future it is almost exclusively formed of verbs 
of the I. conjugation and especially those verbs the radical sylla- 
ble of which has for terminal sound a guttural, a dental, or an s. 
The letter s joins this terminal sound immediately and assimi- 
lates it to itself (§ 54). The method of writing in median 
sound varies between ss and s. In the later language this 
future disappears. Paradigms : tiagaim I go, for-tiagaim I help. 


12. FUTURE. 




1 fortias, 


tSssinn, tiassainn 

2 forteis, 



3 fortei, -te, 


tessed, tiasad 

1 fortiasam, 

tesme, -mit 


2 fortesid, 

teste (i) 


3 fortiasat, 


Mssitis, tiastis. 

286. The 3 sg. of the conjoined flexion has in some in- 
stances also lost the radical vowel : do-air, tair veniat (tair 
also as 2 sg. come), 3 pi. tairset, perf. sg. 3 tairnic (for do-air- 

Active. 83 

anic, § 299); con-eit indulgeat, 1 pi. com-etsam, pres. sg. 3 com- 
etig I; to am protegat, 3 pi. to ainset, pres. sg. 3 no anich I; 
ar na dich, dig ne veniat, 2 sg. co n-dechais that thou comest, 2 
pi. mam digsid, preterite dechaid (§ 302). 

287. The following are further safe examples of the 
S-future (cf. § 320 and § 343): 

no tes effugiam, pres. techim, perf. § 295; 

cu dusesa (for ses-sa) ut persequar, pres. sg. 3 do-seich; 

inchoissised significaret, pres. sg. 3 in-chosig > pret. § 266; 

acht conetis if thou only prayest, pres. cuintgim, pret. §266; 

dufi vindicabit, pres. sg. 3 dofich; 

co du-di (vel co rnidithir) Gloss on ut inducat Ml. 35 c , pres. 
conj. sg. 3 do-da-decha Hy. 5, 81 (?); 

iaTmid-oised (for foised) who would ask after it, pres. sg. 
3 ictTma-foich, pret. §266; 

cia Tosme although we reach, pres. pi. 3 ni Tochet; 

doindin tradet, doindnisin traderem, pres. do-ind-naich, pret. 

adnaissi sepelies, pres. see. passive adnxicthe sepeliebatur, 
inf. adnacul; 

co tora ut veniat, pres. sg. 3 toTaig, pret. 262; 
to sia, veniat, pret. to siacht § 266 ; 

do-fu-thris-se vellem, dutlwais optabis, pres. sg. 3 dutliTaic 
vult (cf. § 79), perf. dep. § 349; 

immechoimaiTsed he would ask, pres. pass. sg. 3 immechom- 
arcaT, perf. dep. § 349; 

condarias (sg. 1) Gloss on quae alligare compellor Ml. 21 b , 
pres. con-Hug , ligo, cf. § 288; 

cottius until I come, to is, Tis-sa assequar, pres. ru icim, 3 
ric, perf. to anac, Tdnac § 299; 

co t% donee veniat, pi. 3 co tissat, pres. ticim, perf. § 299; 


84 IX. Verb. 

cords poteris, ma chotismis si id possemus, pres. sg. 3 con-ic, 
perf. dep. § 347; 

comuir attinget, comairsem attingemus (pres. com-air-ic-); 

fuirsitis they would find, past pass, fur edit inventum est; 

ni dersid ne descrueritis, pres. ni derig non amittit; 

nochon erus non surgam, ass-eirset resurgent, pres. eirgim, 
pret. as-reracht § 266; 

atrtsat surgent, pres. pi. 3 atregal, pret. atracht § 266; 

dlessaind I would deserve, pres. dligim; 

dofonus-sa lavabo, pres. do-fo-nug (nigim), perf. § 295 ; 

condesat exquirent, pres. con-daig quaerit; 

ni sdis ne adeas, pres. saigim; 

to sasat dicent, pres. sg. 3 rel. saiges; 

toissed lie would swear, ma fris-tossam si abjuraverimus, 
pres. tong juro; 

fulos sustinebo, amal fundlo as he will bear it, pres. sg. 3 
Jodoing (cf. § 288); 

nad fochomolsam quam non sustineamus, perf. fo-coimdac- 
tar pertulerunt; 

co chotabosad-si ut vos comminueret (for con-dob-bosad), pres. 
com-boing confringit, pret. bocht § 266; 

arutais-siu reficies, pres. sg. 3 arutaing, past § 266; 

ni cuimsimmis we should not be able, pres. sg. 3 cumaing; 

fum-re-se he will aid me, pres. cid fo-ruith suecurro. 

in-restais invadere nitebantur Ml. 37 d , pres. inreith vastat 
(cf. §354*); 

istais they would eat, pres. ithim; 

fotimdiris suffias, pres. fotimdiriut suffio ; 

fris-tait opponunt (§ 264 c ), coni frithtaised ne opponeret; 

toethsat, totsat they will fall, dofoethsad he would fall, con- 

Active. 85 

dositis (for dothsitisf) ut caderent, pres. tuitim I fall (for do-fo- 
thitim, §264°); 

co n-ddrbais ut demonstres, don-aid-bsed that he would show, 
pres. sg. 3 du-ad-bat dernonstrat, pass, tad-badar; 

docoi veniet, perf. dochoid, -chiiaid § 301 ; 

atchous nuntiabo, perf. atchuaid exposuit § 301 ; 

donfe he may lead us, pres. fedim, imme-fedat circumferunt; 

im-roimset peccabunt, perf. dep. immc-ru-mediar (read 
-medair) peccavit § 349; 

co ingriastais ut persequerentur, pres. sg. 3 in-greinn, perf. 
§ 295. 

288. Some few verbs are known to exist in an S-future 
with reduplication : 

co-riris-siu ligabis, with sg. 1 conda-rias § 287, perf. reraig 
§ 295, pres. con-riug ; 

silsimi-ni caedemus, perf. sg. 3 selaig (for seslaig) § 295; 

fo-lilsat sustinebunt, beside fo-losat, pres. fo-loing> fulaing 
tolerat ; 

cichset he would go, pres. cingim I, perf. cechaing § 295; 

memais, commema will fall, break, pi. 3 com-mebsat (for 
memsat), perf. sg. 3 memaid § 295 (maided clades). 

co tarblais> thou shalt leap, perf. tarbling, leblaing, pres. 
lingim (cf. § 45). 

The following are less certain : ni chaemais non poteris, 
ni caemsat non poterunt, with ni cuimsin non possem, pres. 
cumaing potest. 

289. In Old Irish there are no S-futures with retained 
radical terminal sounds. The forms which seem such are 
either errors or may be otherwise explained. Instead of hona 
cumachtaigset quo non sunt potituri (Z. 2 p. 1094 to p. 462, 2) 
the MS. has hona cumachtaigfet (Ml. 28 a , 12, ed. Ascoli); 
foruraithminset (Gloss on meminisse Z. 2 p. 468, Stokes Goid. 2 
p. 26) is an S-pret. 

86 IX. Verb. 


290. The perfect never occurs in denominative verbs. Most 
perfects are formed from roots with an intermediate a. Three 
types may be distinguished : (a) the radical syllable has a short 
a, and reduplication is either present or dropped ; (b) the radical 
syllable has a long a in the singular (whether it has long a also 
in the plural is questionable), reduplication is dropped; (c) the 
radical syllable and the syllable of reduplication are fused into 
a single syllable with e. Paradigms : canim I cano, gudim III 
oro, aith-gnim II cognosco. 

(a) (b) (c) 

Sg. 1 cechan ro gad aithgen 

2 cechan ro gad aithgen 

3 cechuin ro gdid aithgeuin, -geoin 
PI. 1 cechnammar ro gadammar aithgenammar 

2 cechnaid ro gadaid aithgenaid 

3 cechnatar ro gadatar aithgenatar 

291. The first and second persons singular are distinguished 
by the addition of the augmenting particles sa and su : cechan- 
sa cecini, cechan- su cecinisti. The flexion in the pi. 1 and pi. 
3 is deponent (cf. the T-past § 265); but isolated forms like 
gegnait occiderunt (L. U. p. 23 b , 36) are found beside gegnatar 
sg. 1 gegon, pres. gonaim. In the pi. 2 a deponent form gains 
ground also in Middle Irish. Old Irish tancaid venistis (§ 299), 
Middle Irish ta?icaibar, Modern Irish t&ngabhar. In isolated 
cases absolute forms (§ 259) occur in the plural : cachnaitir 
cecinerunt, Older Irish cechnatar, tair-cechnatar vaticinati sunt ; 
bdtir beside bdtar, ro bdtar fuerunt ; memdaitir they broke ; 

femmir we slept (§295). 

292. Those perfects which are formed as (a) cechan have 
often lost the reduplicative syllable, either without a trace, or 
after the e in the same had changed the preceding particle ro to 
roi (§ 19): for-roi-chan praedixit and many others. Some 
perfects exhibit no trace whatever of the reduplication : a d- 
chon-darc vidi, do-choid venit (§ 302). 

Active. 87 

293. The vowel of the reduplicative syllable is e, rarely a: 
fris-racacha speravi, by blending and assimilation from ro-ad- 

cecha; later also cachain cecinit, tathaim quievit. 

294. The perfect is formed directly from the root : varia- 
tion according to the conjugation of the present does not 
exist. Perfects such as : lit adhaesit, dedaig oppressit, prove 
that the nasal of the presents lenim adhaereo, dengaim, opprimo, 
does not belong to the root. However the median nasal sound 
has generally passed into the perfect form in radical syllables 
iu nd, nn, in all examples. 

295. The following are further examples of perfect forms 
which join the paradigms (a) cechan; 

fo-roi-chlaid effodit, rocechladatar sufFoderunt, imperative 
passive cladar. 

dessid consedit, indessid insederat Ml. 20% pi. 3 desetar ; 
in-destetar insiderunt, Ml. 58 a (root sad). 

arob-roi-nasc despondi enim vos (for ar-fob-), 3 ro nenaisc, 
pres. fo-naiscim I. 

gegon interfeci, 3 gegoin, geoguin, pres. gonaim I, fut. § 280. 
jiu he slept, pi. 1 fommir, 2 febair, 3 feotar, pres. sg. 3 
foaid (§ 56). 

do rertatar they ran, pres. rethim, fut. § 287. 

mernaid broke, pi. 3 memdatar, mebdatar, corraimdetar, 
fut. § 288. 

fochart I threw, 3fochairt, pi. focliartatar^ he 
throws (cf. § 276). 

taich confugit (Ml. 32 b , written taich), pi. 3 tachatar, pres. 
techim, fut. § 287. 

ad-roi-thach supplicavi, pres. ateoch precor. 

ro selach I beat (for seslach), pret. passive ro slechta destructi 
fuerunt, fut. § 288. 

88 IX. Verb. 

foselgatar illiverunt, pres. fo-sligim delino. 

reraig porrexit, pres. rigim. 

con-reraig ligavit, pres. con-riug ligo, fut. § 288. 

fonenaig purificavit, pres. do-fo-nug lavo, fut. § 287. 

ro senaich stillavit (for sesnaig), S-preterite sg. 3 snigis. 

lelgatar (i. lomraiset L. U. p. 57 b , 19), pres. ligim lingo (?) 
(B. of L. in the same text reads fogeltat). 

do ommalgg (pm- V) mulxi, pres. bligim §41. 

conrotaig extruxit, pres. cunutgim (for con-ud-tegim). 

rom ebail me educavit, rott eblatar te educaverunt (L. U. 
p. 123 b , 124 a ), pres. eblim, fut. § 277. 

in-roi-grann persecutus sum, ad-roi-gegrannatar persecuti 
sunt, pres. pi. 3 in-grennat, fut. 287. 

roe-glaind didicit, pres. fo-gliunn disco. 

ro-sescaind lie sprang, pres. scinnim. 

sescaing esiluit, pres. scingim. 

cechaing he went, pres. cingim, fut. § 288. 

leblaing he leaped, pres. lingim §45, fut. § 288. 

do-sephainn pepulit, pi. 3 do-sephnatar, do-roiphnetar, taf- 
netar, pres. do-sennim (§ 56), toibnim. 

dedaig oppressit, pres. dingim, pi. 3/or-dengat opprimunt. 

combaig confregit (beside bocht § 266), pres. sg. 3 com-boing, 
fut. § 287. 

focoimlactar pertulerunt, pres. fo-loing sustinet, fut. § 287. 

fris-racacha speravi, acca, conacca vidi, pres. ad-cMu, acciu 
video, fris-aicet opperiuntur, fut. § 284 and § 346. 

do-ro-chair, tor chair cecidit, pi. 3 do-ciuchratar (L. TJ. p. 54 a , 
5) do-ro-chratar torchratar, pres. arin-chrin interit, pi. 3 hore 
arincJirinat quia intereunt. 

296. From roots with a as terminal sotind are formed : 
bebe mortuus est (cf. § 303), nachim rind-ar-pai-se quod me non 
reppulit, pi. innarpatar (cf. § 303), present ind-ar-benim, imm- 
rera profectus est, present im raim (used of going to sea.) 

Active. 89 

297. Of the same formation as (b) ro gad I prayed, pres. 
gudimm III, is ro scaich, scdig praeteriit, pres. scuchim III. 

298. To (c) adgen cognovi belong of active forms : 

ar-ro-cher redemi, sg. 3 do-rad-chiuir redemit, pres. crenim 
emo, taid-chur redemtio. 

ro giuil adhaesit, pres. glenim adhaereo (fut. § 276). 
ro taisfeoin demonstravit, pres. tais-fenat demonstrant. 

299. The perfect anac (Skr. dnamga), do anac, tanac I 
came, is sui generis, present sg. 3 tic, pi. 3 tecat; ro anac, rdnac 
I reach, present sg. 3 ric, pi. 3 recat 

Sg. 1 tdnac Pi. 1 tdncammar 

2 tdnac 2 tdncid, later tdncaibar 

3 tdnic 3 tdncatar. 

Other compounds are : tairnic (do-air-anic) accidit (future 
§ 286); iinma-com-amic (air-anic) doib they got together, pres. 
imm-aircet (for -air-icet) conveniunt. 

300. Perfects from roots with i ; 

HI adhaesit, pi. 3 leltar, pres. lenim, fut. § 276; 

rir dedit, as-rir vendidit, pres. as-renat reddunt, fut. § 276; 

cich ploravit, pres. did plorat, pi. 3 ciit. 

301. Perfects from roots with u : 

do-choad veni, 3 dochdid, chuaid, pi. 3 dochotar, dochuatar, 
fut. §287; 

ad-chdaid exposuit, pi. 1 ad-c6idemmar tractavimus ; 

do-roi-gu elegit, doroegu, dordiga, pi. 3 do-roi-gatar, pres. 
to-gu eligo (root gus), fut. § 276 ; 

ro bd fui, 3 ro b6i, ro bdi, rabi, bu } pi. 3 bdtar, pres. biu 
(root bhu) ; 

ro cMala audivi (§ 74), 3 ro chuale, chtiala, pi. 3 ro diualatar, 
pres. clunim (root clu). 

90 IX. Verb. 

302. The perfect fuar inveni is probably to be dis- 
membered into fu-ar (fu preposition), cf. frith inventum est, 
perf. pass. § 328; 3/uair, pi. 1 fuarammar, 3/uaratar. 

The following is inflected like a perfect : . lod, dollod I went, 

2 dollot (with suffixed t § 205), 3 luid, dolluid, pi. 1 lodomar, 

3 lotar, dottotar, cf. however the infinitive dula, dul to go. 

With dochuaid ivit (§ 301) the following are not to be 
confounded: dechad, deochad, dodeochad ivi, 2 dodeochad, 
3 dechuith, dechaid, dodeochaid, pi. 3 dechatar, tuidchetar, but 
pi. 1 dodechommar irregular (cf. the future § 286). 

303. In Later Irish the old perfects are very often changed 
according to the analogy of the S-preterite, or are replaced by the 
same : tanacus I came, sg. 2 tanacais (§299); dochuadus I came 
(§ 301); cia ro toipniset gloss on ce dosefnatar although they 
hunted him (§ 295) ; leblingsetar they leaped, tar-blingis he 
leaped, pres. lingim (§ 295); Modern Irish ro chonriarcas I saw, 
Old Irish con-dare. So also hebais he died, for the Old Irish 
bebe (§ 296) ; co ro innarbsat reppulerunt (§ 296), lilis adhaesit, 
for Old Irish Ml, cichis ploravit, for Old Irish cich (§ 300). 


304. S cokes in his treatises on the Old Irish verb (Beitrage 
zur Yergl. Sprachf. vi. vn.) was the first to note certain 
sporadic and in part not completely determined tense-forms. 
Complete paradigms cannot be set forth. 

305. B-preterite (I.e. vn. 31). Serglige Conculand 35feraib 
interchanges with ferais he gave. In the same way anaib he 
remained, beside anais; bruchtaib vomuit, beside bruchtis. Sg. 
2 ma ro sellaib i. ma ro sillis if thou hast seen Fel. July 4. 

306. D-past (I.e. vn. 17) is up to the present established in 
only a few and somewhat uncertain examples : damdatar (i. 

forodmatar) passi sunt, occurs Fel. Oct. 15 in three MSS. and 
Fel. Prol. 32 (i. ro damsat) in two MSS. (perhaps transposed 
from dadmatar, § 80). 

Active. 91 

307. IT-preterite (1. c. vn. 54) will perhaps have to be 
acknowledged: riadu S. C. 31, 12 from riadaim I go;fuacru 
Hy. 5, 9 she announced, belonging to focair (fo-od-gair) indicat. 
Cf. Old Gaulish eiupov, ieuru, fecit, allied to Old Irish iurad 
factum est. 

308. T-future (1. c. vn. 28). Established examples are : 
atbert dicam, bertait they will carry off Sc. M. 4; and with 
obvious adaptation to the reduplicated future (§ 277) : rnertait 
they will remain (L. U. 36% 6) beside merait, gebtait capient 
(L. U. 56% 26) beside gebait, taitnebtait they will seem (L. XJ. 
36% 6). In the same way with adaptation to the B-future (§ 282) 
cesfaitit they will suffer, and betit they will be (Beitr. vn. 35). 

Gabtait they take Med Bricrend 15 is noteworthy in the 
narration after the present atafregat they rise, cf. § 309. 

309. Preterite in -ta (1. c. vn. 27) seems to be established 
in senta benedixit with the gloss i. bennachais i. ro senastar 
Hy. 5, 38; dobretha dedit T. E. 5, F. B. 38; alta educavit CO. 
3 Eg. beside alt. To this class also belongs bentaiseom he beat 
L. XL p. 127% 4, pi. 3 bentatar ibid. p. 64% 32, beside benais. 

310. The forms designated aorist by Ebel (Gram. Celt. 2 
p. 447) and by Stokes (1. c. vn. 7) may partly be so con- 
sidered from an Indo-germanic point of view, but in Irish as 
far as they have a conjunctive sense, are allied to the redupli- 
cated future, except that they are wanting in the syllable of 
reduplication : 

ni ria ne vendat, pi. 3 ni riat with conjunctive flexion, 
whilst as-ririu impendam contrary to the ordinary rule forms 3 
sg. as-riri (§ 278), perf. as-rir dedit, pres. as-renim, ernim; 

ni cria ne emat, pres. crenim, perf. § 298; 

forms belonging to dqfuibnim (do-fo-) succido, etirdibnim 
(etir-di) y compounds from benim caedo : f ut. sg. 3 dorodba suc- 
cidat, pi. 3 co eter-dam-dibet-sa ut me interficiant Ml. 44% fut. 
sec. sg. 3 co dwfobath ut (omnem . . spem) incideret Ml. 35% 
oldaas itir-n-da-di-bed than that he should kill them Ml. 45 c ; 

92 IX. Verb. 

pass. fut. sg. 3 co dufobither ut succidatur, co itirdibither ut 

forms belonging to the perfect bebe mortims est (§ 303), fut. 
sec. sg. 3 nom-baad that one might die Ml. 23 d , pi. 3 nom-batis 
that they might die. 

311. Certain forms belonging to the present do-gniu with 
a sense in part conjunctive-future, in part preterite are not yet 
made clear in every respect. They contain the particle ro be- 
tween the preposition and the verbal form and this is so closely 
united with the latter, that the g of the same has disappeared 
before the n, according to the general law as to internal sound : 
sg. 1 sechichruth dondron quoinodoeunque id fecero, 2 act dor- 
ronai modo feceris; sec. sg. 3 duronad fecisset. Of these forms 
the 1 sg. doron probably stands for a prehistoric do-ro-gn-(o). 

In the preterite all the following occur side by side : 

(a) (b) (c) 

Sg. 1 dorignius feci dordnsa (Fel. Prol. 269) 

2 dorignis doronais 

3 dorigni dorigeni dordni 
PI. 1 dorigensam 

2 dorigensid 

3 dorigensat dor6nsat 

Cf. the preterite passive § 327. The forms (a) dorignius and 
(c) dorfinsa (for do-ronus-sa) are probably not essentially distinct, 
whereas dorigeni calls to mind the future formed with redupli- 
cation dogen faciam. 


312. The passive has special forms for the third person 
only. As to the formation of the remaining persons see § 329. 
Paradigms of the present form : I berim I bear, II carim I love 
III lecim I leave. 

Passive. 93 


abs. conj. abs. conj. abs. conj. 


Sg. 3 berir, dobei\ir carthir, no charthar leicthir, dolleicther 

PI. 3 bertir, dobertar caritir, no charatar lecitir, dolleciter. 


Sg. 3 berthir, doberthar carthir, ara carthar Uicthir, ara leicther 
PI. 3 bertir, dobertar caritir, ara caratar lecitir, ara leciter. 



Sg. 3 berar carthar leicther no berthe no charthe no leicthe 

PL 3 bertar caratar leciter, no bertis no chartis no Mictis. 

313. For -ir, -thir, -tir are also found -air, -thair, -tair: 
dlegair I debetur, derbthair III adprobatur. Tlie suppression of 
the thematic vowel before the termination is not used, especially 
when the suppression would lead to too great an accumulation 
of consonants : fo-eitsider III subauditur; du-fui-bniter I suc- 
ciduntur (pres. act. beni?n); ar na tomnathar II ne putetur 
(pres. dep. do-moiniur) ; canitar I canuntor. 

314. The form in -ar of the I conj. seems also to occur as 
3 sg. of the conjoined flexion: nom berar ferar, but e.g. tiagar 
eatur (without preceding particle) is imperative. The conjunc- 
tive form is clearly distinguished from the indicative form by 
do-gniu III facio and bin III sum : 3 sg. ind. dognither fit, i 
m-bitlier in quo quis est, conj. ma dugnetlier si fit, cia bethir 
though one is (cf. § 264). 


315. Paradigms: berim I bear, do-biur I give: 


Sg. 3 doberthar, abs. berthir bertha 

PI. 3 dobirtar, abs. Mrtir bertis* 

94 IX. Verb. 

316. The verbs which are set forth § 275 of course form 
this future, e.g. eter-scertar separabuntur, pres. etar-scarim II; 
3sg. gentir,dogentar fiet, pres. gniim, dogniu facio; dofuisemtliar 
procreabitur, pres. do-fuisim I generat (for do-fo-es-sim) ; fu- 
raithmenter dignus memoria ducetur (? ducitur Ml. 17 b ), pres. 
dep. for-aith-minedar III memorat. 

317. Reduplicated futures without contraction of redupli- 
cation and radical syllable into one syllable with e (§ 276) 
are rare: asrirther reddetur, pres. as-renim; focichertar pone- 
tur, pres. fo-cheivt, -cheird ponit. 

With dorega, ragaid ibit is the passive doragthar, rigthir, 
ragthair ibitur. Cf. co dufobither § 310. 


318. Most verbs of the II and III conjugation have this 
form in the passive as in the active. Paradigms : carim II I 
love, lecim III I leave. 



Sg. 3 carfidir, conj. ni carfider carfide 

PI. 3 carfitir, conj. ni carfiter carjitis. 


Sg. 3 leicfidir, conj. dolleicfider Ulcjide 

PL 3 leicjitir, conj. dolleicfiter Ulcfitis. 

319. For -fidir are also found : -faidir, -jithir and (especially 
after a double consonant) -ebthir, -ibthir; for -Jider are also 
found: -/aider, -fedar (-bedar), Jither, and (especially after a 
double consonant) -abthar, -ebthar, -ibther: gairmebtair vocabun- 
tur from gairmim voco; ailebthair educabitur from alim educo; 
ni for-brisbedar non obruetur Ml. 51 b . 


320. Paradigm dligim I mereo: 


Sg. 3 ro dlestar, abs. dlestir dlesta 

PI. 3 ro dlesatqr, abs. dlesitir dlestis. 

Passive. 95 

321. The verbs mentioned in § 287 for the S-future active 
have this passive form, e.g.: 

duindnastar tribuetur, pres. do-ind-naich I tribuit; 
adnastar sepelietur, adnacul sepelire; 
doformastar, tormastar augebitur, pres. tormaig I auget; 
ad-riastar (§21) alligabitur, pres. ad-riug I alligo; 
for-diassatar opprimentur, pres. for- deng at I opprimunt; 

co n-d&rbastar ut demonstretur, pres. du-ad-bat I demon- 
strat ; 

du-n-diastae Gloss on deduci permissus sit Ml. 45 c ; 
accastar, du-ecastar cernetur, pres. ad-chiu, deccu III cerno. 

322. The flexion of the S-future recalls in the active the 
indicative present of the I. conjugation. Likewise in the 
passive, for in the 3 sg. forms in -ar are found beside 
those in -tar: dufiastar (Ml. 27 c ) and co dwfessar (Ml. 32 c ) ut 
vindicetur, pres. do-fich I ulciscitur; co festar ut sciatur, and 
diafessar si sciatur, iperf.Jitir scit (§351); adfessar nuntiabitur, 
pres. ad-fiadaim; coni messar ut nihil es timet ur Ml. 42 d , fat. 
dep. miastir judicabit, pres. midiur judico; do-thiasar eatur, 
pres. do-thiagaim. 

323. Forms with reduplication also have been proved to 
exist: rirastar ligabitur in cotan-rirastar-ni obligemur (§ 331), 
pres. con-riug 1 ; folilastce, would be borne, pres. fo-loing I susti- 
net; atat-chigestar videris (§ 331), pres. ad-chiu video; fortiri 
brdgit bibsatar L.U. p. 125, pres. bongaim I break 1 ? 


324. The characteristic of the preterite passive is t which is 
either joined immediately to the root or to the present stem. 
Paradigm : dobiur I I give, carim III love, lecim III I leave. 

I II in 

Sg. 3 dobreth ro charad ro Uced 

PI. 3 dobretha ro chartha ro lecthea. 

96 IX. Verb. 

325. Instead of the breth in dobreth other composite verbs 
have -bred, -brath, -brad: asrobrad dictum est, ad-ropred 
oblatus est (ad-ro-od), preterite active asrubart dixit, adopert ob- 
tulit ; in the same way : doraimgred promissum est (do-ro-air- 
con-gred), forruchongrad praeceptum est, pret. act. dorairngert 
promisit, forcongart praecepit, pres. for-co7i-gur praecipio. In 
these cases the radical syllable has taken the form bre, bra (cf. 
Skr. bhri), gre, gra. In the same way eblim I bring tip 
(flit. § 277, perf. 295) forms eblad, rom-eblad-sa educatus 
sum (§ 329) j sg. 3 toimled, pi. 3 to tomlithea consumpti sunt 
(L.U. p. 34^, 19), pres. tomlim; while from alim educo ro alt 
educatus est, pret. active ro alt § 266. 

32 6 a . cht comes from a radical guttural and t: 

airecht was found, pres. pass, air-ecar I invenitur, perf. act. 
arnic, tarnic § 299; 

furecht was found, pres. act. fo-ric I (i.e. fo-ro-ic) invenit, 
perf. sg. Sfornic (iovfo-ranic), fut. § 287. 

Jiuare ro slechta quia destructi fuerant, perf. act. ro selaig ; 

lase forruillecta postquam illita sunt (for fo-n-ru-slecta); 
pres. fo-sligim I delino ; 

ro-adnacht was buried, pres. sec. pi. 3 no adnaictis I they 
were burying, fut. § 287, inf. adnacul ; 

ro-ort was killed, pi. 3 ro orta, pret. act. ro ort § 266, pres. 
orgaid I caedit, inf. orcun. 

326 b . ss, s (§ 54) come from a radical dental or s and t : 

ro fess scitum est, pi. ro fessa, perf. deip.fetar scio (§ 351), 
inf. fiss ; 

ro clas, fo-class was dug, imper. pass. sg. 3 cladar I, perf. 
act. fo-roichlaid effodit § 295 ; 

do-chuas itum est, perf. act. do-ch6id, -chtiaid he went, ad- 
chuas nnntiatum est, perf. act. ad-chuaid nuntiavit ; 

Passive. 97 

fo-cress was thrown, pres. act. fo-cheird I lie throws, perf. 
fo-chart I threw (focress with the formation of the radical 
syllable as in do-breth § 325) ; 

ro-chloss was heard, pres. dep. door audio (root clus § 52) ; 

ad-chess, accas visum est, pi. atchessa, pres. act. ad-chiu III, 
perf. acca vidi, fut. ad-cichset (root cas § 264). 

326 c . A radical nasal before t disappears with compen- 
satory lengthening (§ 74) : 

ro chet cantus est, pi. ro cheta, pres. act. canim I, perf. 

do-reiset profusus est (for do-ro-es-set), pres. act. do-esmet 
I profundunt, fut. pass. § 316 (root sem) ; 

ro-goet, gaet was wounded (§ 74), pres. act. gonim I, perf. 
§ 295, fut. § 280. 

32 6 d . In such verbs as benim caedo, renim do (§ 261) the 
nasal does not belong to the root, the characteristic of the pre- 
terite passive is directly united to the vowel terminal sound 
of the same : sg. 3 imm-ruidbed in immum-ruidbed circumcisus 
sum § 329, pres. im-di-bnim circumcido ; pi. 3 ani asatorbatha 
id ex quo ejecti sunt (for as-an-do-fo-ro-bathd), pres. do-fui-bnvm 
succido; pi. 3 to ratka are granted, pres. renim I give. 

327. Most verbs of the II. and III. conjugation, especially 
all denominative verbs, affix the character t to the stem of the 
present : ro erbad commissum est, pi. ro airptha, pres. erpimm 
(§ 35) committo; ro rioibad sanctificatus est, pres. noibaim II 
(noib, n6eb holy); doratad datum est, pi. dorata (§64), preterite 
act. doratus dedi; ro foided missus est, pi. ru foitea, roitea, 
pres. foidim III ; du-rolged, -roilged remissum est, pi. dorol- 
getha, derlaichta, pres. do-luigim III ; ro sudiged positus est, 
pres. sudigim III (sude seat). In the same way is formed 
ro gniith, ro gnith factum est, pi. cain ro gnata (read gnatha) 
bene acta sunt Ml. 39 a , pres. gniim III; do-rigned factum est, 
pres. do-gniu, and with another formation do-rbnad factum 
est, pi. doronta (§ 311). 

i. a. 7 

98 IX. Verb. 

328. Certain verbs of the I. conjugation have the t not 
immediately joined to the root : ro-gabad captus est, pres. gabim 
I capio ; foracbad relictus est (for fo-ro-aith-gabad), pres. fdca- 
baim, fdcbaim (fo-aith-gabaim) relinquo ; pi. dorurgabtha sunt 
prolata (for do-ro-for-gabtha) ; ro coscad correptus est, inf. cose 
(for con-sech-). 

So also perhaps doroigad eleetus est Ml. 123% perf. act. 
do-rbi-gu elegit, pres. togu, togaim (root gus § 52), yet it is 
questionable whether the present belongs to the I. conjugation. 
The following are isolated forms : frith, fofrith inventum est, 
pi. foritha, perf. act. filar inveni § 302. 


329. In order to express the first and second persons, the 
proper pronoun is prefixed in its enclitic form to the 3 sg. united 
to a particle or if the verb is a compound to a preposition 
(cf. § 201). Paradigms noun berar feror from berim fero, immum- 
ruidbed circumcisus sum, preterite (§ 326 d ) from the compound 
im-di-bnim circumcido (benim caedo) : 

Sg. 1 nom berar-sa immum-ruidbed 

2 not berar-su immut-ruidbed 

PI. 1 non berar-ni immun-ruidbed 

2 nob berar-si immub-ruidbed. 

On -sa, -su &c. § 193. 

330. In the same way the remaining tenses of the passive : 
nob crete credebamini (secondary present), pres. act. cretim III 
credo ; nom linfider-sa complebor, pres. act. linaim II compleo ; 
nib iccfither nou salvabimini, pres. act. iccaim II salvo ; co dob- 
emtkar-si defendamini (fut.), fut. act. du-ema vindicabit. 

331. The pronoun is also united to the particle do, inter- 
calated with this between preposition and verb : atamroipred 
consecratus sum Ml. 44 c , pres. adopuir offert (§ 35), cotob- 
sechfider instituemini, inf. cose (that is con-sech) instituere ; 
cotan-rirastar-ni obligemur (§ 323), pres. con-riug ligo; atat- 
chigestar videris (for ad~dot-chichestar), pres. adchiu video. 



332. In Modern Irish the independent pronoun in its 
accusative form is placed after the verb, e. g. molaim II I praise, 
moltar me I am praised : 

Sg. 1 moltar me PL 1 moltar inn or sinn 

2 moltar thio 2 moltar ibh or sibh 

3 moltar e 3 moltar iad. 


The deponent flexion is found in all three conju- 

gations, especially often in denominative verbs of the III. con- 
jugation. The three conjugations are not everywhere marked 
by distinct forms. On the use of the deponent forms cf. § 253. 
Paradigms Conj. I sechur sequor, II labrur loquor, III midiur 
judico : 





Sg. 1 sechur 



2 sechther 



3 sechethar 



abs. sechidir 



PL 1 sechemmar 



2 sechid 



3 sechetar 



abs. sechitir 







Sg. 1 secher 



2 sechther 



3 sechethar 



abs. sechidir 



PL 1 sechemmar 



2 sechid 



3 sechetar 



abs. sechitir 



334. The conjunctive forms predominate in use. They 
often stand in a relative position without any preceding par- 
ticle : inti labrathar is qui loquitur ; cruthaigedar (Gloss on 
plasmantis) qui format. The 2 pi. has only an active form in 
Old Irish ; the later deponent forms in -bar, -bair seem only 


100 IX. Verb. 

to occur in a preterite sense. In the 1 pi. there are also 
absolute forms in -mair, -mir. 

In the place of -ur is also found -or, and -ithir instead of 
-idir, and -edar, -adar instead of -ethar, -athar, cf. § 319. In 
Middle Irish the 1 sg. in -or, -ur is used in a conjunctive sense : 
con acor ut videam, co ro acilliur ut appellem. 

335. In the 2 sg. in particular, but also in the 3 sg. con- 
junctive occur noteworthy forms in -ra, -thera, -thre : sg. 2 nit 
dgara be not afraid S. C. 40; dian-accara cum videris L. Breac 
p. 47 b , 41 ; atchithera quos videas L. Breac 43. Examples of 
such forms are found in the pieces for reading I, 49. Stokes was 
so kind as to give me the reference to most of them in a letter. 

Sg. 3 dianus faccara cum eum viderit L. Breac 69 b , 28 ; 
madafindara in each " if every one knows or finds out " Sench. 
M. Ill p. 12, 23 ; num sichethre sequatur me Cod. Cam. 
(Z. 2 p. 1005). For similar forms in the S-future see § 344. 

336. Yerbs which have more or less consequent deponent 
forms : 

adglddur I appello, 3 ad-gladathar, conj. sg. 1 co ro acilliur 
ut appellem (§ 334), past § 339, fut. § 346, pass. pres. sg. 3 
adglddar, inf. accaldam ; 

dgur, adagur I timeo, 3 ni agathar, conj. sg. 2 ni aigther 
ne timeas, nit dgara § 335, fut. § 341, inf. aigthiu; 

door I hear, conj. sg. 2 con dam chloither-sa ut audias 
me Ml. 21 b , 3 ; ro dam cloathar qui me audiat, fut. § 346 ; 

clunim I hear, 3 nis cluinethar non audit, conj. sg. 3 
ro dom cluinedar qui me audiat, perf. § 301, pass. pres. sg. 3 
ni cluiner (later cluinter) non auditur ; 

ad-chiu, deccu III video, conj. sg. 1 con acor, accur ut 
videam (§ 334), 2 dia n-accara, atchithera (§ 335), 3 con ac- 
cadar ut videat, pi. 1 mani decamar nisi attendamus, perf. 
§ 295, fut. § 346 and § 288 ; 

do-moiniur III puto, 2 domointer, 3 do-aith-minedar com- 
monet, conj. pi. 1 con der-manammar ut obliviscamur, perf. 
§ 347, pass. pres. sg. 3 fur-aith-menter (fut. § 316); 

Deponent 101 

atluchur budi refero gratias, do-atluchur with duthluchimse 
III peto, duthluchedar postulat, pi. 1 itlochamar we thank, 
conj. sg. 1 co datlucher ut efflagitem, cia jm todlaiger-sa quam 
justa postolem, past § 340, fut. atluchfam buidi gratias agemus, 
inf. atlugud; 

ar-asissiur-sa innitor, fo-sisiur confiteor, 2 an dun-er- 
issider-su Gloss on adstante te Ml. 38 c , 3 assissedar he stops, 
lase ar-asissedar cum fuerit irinisa, pi. 1 fob-sisimar-ni we 
explain to you, 3 ar-asissetar innituntur, fris-tair-issetar 
ohsisivocit, fosissetar confitentur, conj. sg. 2 fosisider-su profitere, 
preterite § 340, fut. § 342, inf. sessom, sessam to stand, standing, 
tairissem (do-air) constantia ; 

yainethar generatur, gnaither gignitur, pi. 1 ad-gainemmar- 
ni regeneramur, 3 gnitir gignuntur, perf. § 349, fut. § 346 ; 

do-cuiriur III ascisco, 3 docuirethar, pi. 3 hi cuiretar in quo 
ponunt, imme-churetar tractant, ni er-chuiretar non evertunt, 
conj. sg. 1 cura dichuirer Gloss on deleam, past § 340, fut. 

dofuislim labo (do-fo-es-salim), 2 tuislider laberis, conj. 
sg. 3 dufuisledar Gloss on ut possit elabi (Ml.) ; 

rolaimur III audeo, conj. sg. 1 rolldmar ausim, perf. 
§ 349, fut. § 277 ; 

molim and motor II laudo, ro molur laudavi, 3 no moladar, 
fut. § 342, pass. pres. sg. 3 no moltar \ 

intsamlur, insamlur imitor, conj. 1 insamlar ; 

comahiaim II impleo, 3 comalnathar, pi. 3 comalnatar 
qui implent, conj. sg. 3 arin chomalnathar ut id expleat; 

beoigidir vivificat, cuimnigedar qui reminiscitur, and other 
denominatives of the III conj. (preterite § 269 or § 338, fut. 
§ 282 or § 341). 

337. In the second present and in the imperative de- 
ponents have an active flexion : second present sg. 1 atat- 
gladainn-se cum te convenirem ; no arsissinn inniterer Ml. 44 d ; 
adagain-se verebar Ml. 63 d ; sg. 3 nachib mided ne vos judicet ; 
imper. sg. 2 atlaigthe bude refer gratias. The sg. 2 conjunctive 

102 IX. Verb. 

of the deponent is often used in an imperative sense : fosisider- 
su profitere ; nils coirtJier ne posueris earn. 


338. The S-preterite is most often formed in verbs of the 
III. conjugation. Paradigms : labrur II loquor, sudigim III 
pono : 


Sg. 1 ro labrasur ro sudigsiur 

2 ro labriser ro sudigser 

3 ro labrastar ro sudigestar 
abs. labristir sudigistir 

PL 1 ro labrasammar ro sudigsemmar 

2 ro labrisid ro sudigsid 

3 ro labrasatar ro sudigsetar 
abs. labrisitir sudigsitir 

339. Here also side by side with the deponent forms the 
active forms are in use : labrais he spake, beside ro labrastar ; ro 
sudig he put, beside ro sudigestar ; acallais he accosted, beside 
acallastar, later aicillestar (following the III. conj. T) The con- 
joined 3 sg. is particularly often used in deponent flexion, even 
in verbs which otherwise have only an active flexion : ro gude- 
star Gloss on rodas gaid he prayed them (perf.); ro eirnestar 
Gloss on asrir dedit (perf.), pres. ernim that is as-renim; 
ro charastar Gloss on carais (Hy. 5). In Middle Irish a 
deponent form in -bar, -bair occurs : doronsabair fecistis (§291). 

340. Examples of the S-preterite in the deponent verbs 
given § 333 are : ro sechestar consecutus est; dia-ru-muinestar 
quibus destinavit (Wb.) with co-menar § 347; atlaigestar he 
thanked; fu-ro-issestar confessus est (Ml.); do-ro-churestar ex- 


341. Deponent forms of this tense are much rarer than 
active forms and are used side by side with them. A futurum 
secundarium distinct from the active form is not extant. Para- 
digms : dgur, ad-agur I timeo, labrur II loquor, sudigim III 
pono : 


no labrabar 



no labrabadar 


no Idbrafammar 
no labribid 
no labrafatar 


Deponent 103 


Sg. 1 no sudigfer 

2 no sudigjider 

3 no sudigfedar 
abs. sudigjidir 

PI. 1 no sudigfemmar 

2 no sudigjid 

3 no sudigfetar 
abs. sudigfitir 

342. As to the change between f and b, b is preferably in 
use when the thematic vowel is preserved before the character- 
istic of this future (cf. § 283). 

Further examples are : aratmuinfer-sa feid te venerabor 
(Ml.), pres. ar-muineihar feid reveretur ; fosisefar confitebor 
(Ml.); do-cuirifar citabo; no molfar laudabo (Wb.); nud 
comdlnabadar qui earn implebit (Ml.). But on the other 
hand, e.g. ni contuslifea non elabetur (Ml.) in active form 
beside tuislider laberis. 


343. The S-future in the deponent, as in the active, has 
also a conjunctive signification. The conditional does not differ 
from the form used in the active. Paradigm fetar scio (§ 351); 

Sg. 1 to fessur PL 1 ro fessamar 

2 ro fesser, co fesara 2 ro fessid 

3 ro festar 3 ro fessatar 
abs. festir abs. fessitir. 

344. In the 2 sg. the form, fesara occurs as accara in the 
conj. present (§ 335). Fiasur, fiastar occur for fessur, festar. 
The frequently occurring S-future of midiur judico is inflected 
exactly in the same way : sg. 2 meser, 3 miastar, abs. miastir, 
pi. 1 messamar, abs. messimir, 2 con irmissid ut intellegatis. 

345. The following are examples from other verbs of this 
future (cf. § 287): pi. 1 adglaasmar-ni alloquemur, pres. ad- 
glddur (cf. § 346); sg. 3 mi-dtithrastar male optabit, 3 ci dutair- 
setar quamvis desideraverint, perf . § 349 ; sg. 2 na imroimser 
ne delinquas, 3 ar na im-ro-mastar ne delinquet, perf. imme- 

104 IX. Verb. 

ru-mediar peccavit § 349; sg. 1 esur edam, 2 cen con essara 
without thou eatest ScM. 3 (or for fessaraV), 3 cini estar etsi 
non edit; conisimar poterimus, cf. § 287. 


346. The reduplicated future is of very rare occurrence 
in the deponent : (a) each rot chechladar quisquis te audierit, 
probably belonging to door audio (§ 336), cf. § 280; ata-gegal- 
lar-sa alloquor eos, 3 ata-gegalldathar (i. acaillfes), ata-geglathar 
L. U. p. 19 b ; pres. adglddur; sg. 3 ad-gignethar renascentur 
(L. U. p. 68 a , 2), pres. ad-gainemmar renascimur, cf. § 284; also 
perhaps atchichither thou wilt see (S. C. 40, cf. § 276); 

(b) perhaps fo-mentar thou shalt expect Wb. 28 e and 30® 
(Gloss on scito), pi. 2 fo-menaid (Gloss on ut observetis Wb. 
7 b ), all three forms taken as perfects in the Gr. Celt. p. 451 ; 
co ar-mentar feid (Gloss on ut revereatur) Wb. 31 c . 


347. The flexion only differs in the singular from the 
perfect active : for that in the plural has assumed the deponent 
flexion. Paradigms: (a) coim-nacar potui, pres. con-ic potest 
(fut. § 287 and § 345); (b) do-menar putavi, pres. do-moiniur 
(fut. § 342 and § 346). 

Sg. 1 coimnacar domenar 


3 coimnucuir domenair 

PL 1 coimnacmar domenammar 

2 coimnacaid domenaid 

3 coimnactar domenatar 

348. The i of coim in (a) coimnacar is sometimes absent, 
e.g. in teccom-nocuir (for do-aitlv-com-) and for-com-micuir ac- 
cidit; whether it may be regarded as an after-effect of the 
syllable of reduplication as set forth in § 19 is not quite 
certain. The later caomnagair lavavit (cf. nigim I wash) allows 
also a coim- to be inferred in Old Irish. 

A reduplication-syllable appears to occur only in siasair 

Deponent 105 

sedit (i. ro saidestar Hy. 5, 1) PL 3 siasatdr L. TJ. p. 64 b , but 
in this instance seems to belong to the verbal stem. 

349. Further examples of the perfect deponent: 

(a) ro Idmair ausus est, pres. ro-laimur audeo, fut. § 277; 
dtithraccar optavi, 3 du-fu-tharcair voluit § 79, pres. diji- 

thraic optat, fut. § 345; 

imchomarcair he asked, pres. imm-chom-airc interrogat, fut. 
§ 287, preterite pi. imcomaircsetar L. U. 25 b , 13; 

fo-ro-damar passus sum, pres. fodaim patitur, fut. § 277; 

in tan imme-ru-mediar (read -medair?) cum peccavit, pi. 3 
inna hi imme-ruimdetar eorum qui peccaverunt, fut. § 345 ; 

do-ru-madir-si quae fuerat emensus, cf. tomus mensura; 

ro midar judicavi, pres. midiur, fut. § 344; 

(b) ro genar natus sum, pres. ad-gainemmar renascimur, 
fut. §284 and §346; 

ro chessar passus sum, pres. cessaim II patior. 

350. The following isolated forms have been found: ro 
genartar nati sunt (Wb.); ro lamratar ausi sunt, cf. § 351. 

351. Of a special form is: ro fetar scio, (fut. § 343), of the 
root vid; the t in fetar has perhaps originated in the same way 
as in cretim I believe (cf. Skr. grad-dadhdmi, Latin credo). 
Paradigm : 

Sg. 1 ro fetar PL 1 ro fitemmar 

2 ro fetar 2 ro fitid 

3 ro fitir 3 ro fitetar 

The 2 sg. is given by infetar-su scisne tu (O'D. Ir. Gram, 
p. 239). In the 1 sg. for fetar are found fetor , fetur, with 
transition to the flexion of the present. Later Irish hsmfea- 
darmar for fitemmar (cf. § 250). 

352. In Modern Irish deponent forms have been imported 
into: (1) the 2 sg. present and future active, (2) the plural 
preterite active of all verbs ; 


IX. Verb. 




1 molaim 


do mholas 

2 molair 


do mholais 

3 molaidh se 

molfaidh se 

do mhol se 

1 molamaoid 


do mkolamar 

2 moltaoi 


do mholabhar 

3 molaid 


do mholadar. 


The 2 sg. in -air, -fair is not extant in Old Irish. The 
plural forms in the preterite have taken their starting point 
from the perfect. In Modern Irish the old S-preterite and the 
perfect are associated so as to form a new preterite of mixed 
character, with peculiar forms only in a few " irregular verbs." 


1. perfect passive participle. 

353. A perfect passive participle is formed by the suffix 
-te {-tae, -to), after vowels -the, -de. This participle is inflected 
as the words in e treated of in § 115 : brethe, berthe (§ 354 e ) 
brought, gen. berthi, dat. berthu; nom. carthe loved, lecthe left. 

354 a . The suffix -te is in most verbs which are not denomi- 
native, especially those of the I. conjugation, attached directly 
to the root as the t is in the preterite passive. Thus are formed 
with a guttural in terminal sound : 

timm-orte compressus (cf. § 266), pres. sec. pass, du-imm- 
aircthe artabatur; neph-frithortae inlesum, Ml. 39% inf.frith- 
orcun offendere ; 

etar-fuillechta interlitus, pres. fthsligim delino ; 

cuim-rechta alligatus, pres. con-riug ligo ; 

tormachta auctus, pres. do-for-maig auget. 

354 b . With a dental terminal sound and s : 

indrisse invasus, pi. nom. ind indirsi vastati ; ind-rid in- 
vasio, pres. ad-riuth adorior, rethait currunt ; aimdrisse Gloss on 
erratam ML 138 d , pres. pi. 3 du-aimd-redat pererrant (for dvr 
air-ind-) ; 

Participles. 107 

mese examinatus, pres. midiur judico ; 

inna n-impesse Ml. 49 b Gloss on obsessorum, pres. im-suidet 

claissi nom. pi. defossi, perf. fo-ro-chlaid effodit, § 295; 

anat n~acailsi Gloss on interpellate Ml. 48% pres. ad-glddur 
alloquor, inf. accaldam ; 

tuicse electus, togu choice (root gus), perf. do-roi-gu elegit. 

354 c . With a nasal terminal sound : 

nepliAoimte unexpected, toimtiu opinion, pres. do-moiniur 
puto, perf. do-menar ; 

erite susceptus, conj. pres. sg. 3 air-ema suscipiat; 

cete, cantus, pres. canim; 

con-goite conpunctus ML 58 c , pres. gonaim vulnero. 

354 d . With vowel termination : 

imdibthe circumcisus, pres. im-di-bnim circumcido (cf. §261); 
tobaide abscisus, pres. do-fui-bnim succido; airdbide interfectus, 
pres. airdben interficit (for air-di-) ; 

foirbthe complete, perfectus, pres. pass. sg. 3 for-banar, for- 
fenar perficitur ; 

rithce datus, pres. renim do (cf. § 261) ; 

cloithe convict us Ml. 32 b , pi. dat. donaib — clothib victis 67 b , 
preterite sg. 3 ro chloi vicit 37 a , pass. pres. sg. 3 cloithir invol- 
vitur 16 b , cloither Gloss on vinci 30° (root klu); 

in-clothi exauditi Ml. 48 b , pres. clunim (§ 261). 

35 4 e . With r or I as terminal sound : 

forngarti jussi, pres. for-con-gur praecipio. 

Verbs like berim, ceMm, melim ought to have forms with 
re, le before the suffix (cf. § 325, § 361 e and § 373) : brethe, brithe, 
inna in-chlidi occulta Ml. 26 r . 

Thus is explained the aspiration of the t in the form with 
transposition : rem-eperthae antedictus, pres. epiur dico ; ted- 
barihe Ml. 47 a ; pres. do-aid-biur offero. 

355. Aspiration has further extended itself to cases in 
which it is not legitimate : frithorthai adflicti Ml. 58 r beside 

108 IX. Verb. 

frithortae Ml. 39 a (§ 35 4 a ) ; foircthe eruditus Ml. 35 d , pres. 
forchun doceo, beside cete cantus § 354 c . Cf. § 361°. 

356. The tendency not to join the suffix directly to the 
radical syllable shows itself also in verbs of the I. conjugation, 
not only in: gabim capio, part, gabtha, aur-gabtha, but even in 
verbs such as canim: don terchantu prophetato Ml. 53 (Z. 2 p. 
881), pres. do-aur-chanim sagio. 

357. Especially noteworthy is frescastae expectatum (ML 
68 a ), dat. neph-frescastu (Ml. 56 d ) gloss on insperata morte 
(further explained through neph-toimtiu, dat. of toimte § 354°), 
the participle of fris-aiccim I expect, hope (ad-chiu I see, § 264), 
perf. fris-racacha speravi. The t of the suffix is again intro-. 
duced, for one might expect fres-casse from § 354 b and from the 
analogy oifrescsiu spes, gen.frescsen (suffix -tiu 9 gen. -ten, § 158). 
Similar phenomena are shown § 36 l b and 375 a . 

358. Participles of verbs of the II. conjugation: neph-etar- 
scarthi indivisa, pres. etar-scaraim separo ; tinolta (§ 64) locata, 
pres. do-in-ola adplicat. 

Of verbs of the III. conjugation : 

cuirthe j actus, pres. cuirim; indhule-loisctki holocausta, 
pres. loiscim uro; foilsigthe revelatus, pres. foilsigim manifesto; 
suidigthe positus, pres. suidigim pono ; fodailte (§ 64), pres. fo- 
dalet distribuunt. 

359. Sometimes this participle has the sense of Latin ad- 
jectives in -alis, -bilis, and it then conies in contact with the 
following participle in -ti : rithe venalis (§ 35 4 d ) ; di-brithe im- 
portabilis (§ 354 e ) ; neph-icthe immedicabilis, pres. iccaim II. 
I cure. 


360. In the same way a participiuni necessitatis is formed 
by the suffix -ti (-ti), after vowels -thi, -di. This participle is 
generally used predicatively in the nominative and rarely in 
other cases : brethi, berthi ferendus (§ 36 l e ), carthi, carthai aman- 
dus, lecthi linquendus. The dative plural is the only case 
which has a separate ending and not the mere -ti ; adnachtib 
condendis (cadaveribus). 

Participles. 109 

361 a . In radical verbs the suffix is directly attached to the 
radical syllable. Thus are formed (cf. § 354 a ) : 

cuimrechti stringendus, pres. con-riug ligo ; 

cuintechti quaerendus, pres. cuintgim, preterite act. conai- 
techt § 266 ; 

adnachti sepeliundus, preterite pass, to adnacht sepultus est ; 

aichti metuendus, pres. dep. dgur I am afraid of. 

361 b . With a dental or an s in terminal sound (cf. § 354 b ) : 

messi judicandus, pres. midiur ; 

fissi sciendum, preterite dvp.fetar scio, § 351. 

Here also after assimilation the t has been introduced anew 
(cf. § 357) : im-casti considerandus with imm-caisiu circum- 
spectio (pres. imm-ad-chiu) ; tin-festi gloss on flatilem Sg. 17 b , 
tin-feth aspiratio, pres. sg. 3 tin-fet inflat (§ 260). 

36 l c . With a nasal in terminal sound one might expect 
e.g. from canim, ceti, but forcanti intimandum (cf. § 356) and 
foircthi imbuendus only are extant (cf. § 355). 

36 l d . With a vowel termination: buthi qui esse debet (Ml. 
23 c , 29 a ). 

36 l e . The aspiration of the t after a terminal sound in r 
e.g. in eperthi dicendum, is perhaps also here explained as in 
§ 354 e from older forms with re, le: clethi celandum Hy. 5, 71 ; 
com-srithi conserendum, pres. ni semat non conserunt (verba) 
Ml. 31 a . 

362. The suffix is not directly joined to the radical syl- 
lable : gabthi capiendus, pres. gabim I. ; sechidi assequendus, 
pres. dep. sechur I. sequor. 

Especially in verbs of the II. and III. conjugation : 

moltai (§ 64) psallendum, pres, molaim laudo ; 

ersailcthi reserandus, pres. pass. sg. arosailcther aperitur (air- 
od-) ; ailti implorandus, pres. ailim precor ; moiti (§ 64) glori- 
andus, pres. moidim glorior ; denti faciendum, pres. denim. 

110 IX. Verb. 


363. In Old Irish the infinitive is not sharply distinguished 
from the ordinary noinen aetionis. The dative of such a noun 
with the particle do approaches pretty nearly the infinitive of 
other languages; do breith ferre, do char ad amare, do leciud 
linquere. The variety of forms used as infinitives is very great, 
still they are preferably formed in the second conjugation in 
-ad, and in the III. conjugation in -iud, -ud. 

364. Object and subject usually follow the infinitive, the 
first in the genitive, the last in the dative with do: ro pad 
maith lim-sa labrad ilbelre dtiib-si esset acceptum mihi vos loqui 
multas linguas. The infinitive with do is also predicative when 
associated with a precedent substantive which according to the 
usage of the Latin language would be its subject or object. This 
substantive either stands absolute in the nominative or is depen- 
dent upon a word going before it: asbert in benfriu..., cachfer 
dib a a,idchi do fairi na cathrach, the woman said to them 
that each of them should watch the town his night FB. 80; 
ar is bes leo-som in daim do thuarcain nam est mos apud illos, 
boves triturare; atd i n-aicniud chaich denum maith ocus imga- 
bail uilc do denum, it is in the nature of each to do good 
and to avoid doing evil, Ml. 14°; co carad chaingnimu du 
denum that he liked to do good deeds ; ni cumcat aithirgi n-do 
denum they cannot do penance Ml. 23 a . 

365. In Irish the possessive pronoun stands in the place 
where in other languages a substantival personal pronoun is 
used: tair dum berrad-sa come to clip me; asbert fria muntir a 
breoad he told his people to burn her. In the sense of the 
subject the possessive pronoun is especially used in intransitive 
verbs: ro bo maith arrochtain and it was good that she came 
there; in tan atchuala a bith alachta when (Mary) heard that 
(Elizabeth) was gravid. 

366. There is not a peculiar passive form of the infinitive, 
but it is necessary sometimes to construe the usual infinitive as 

Infinitive. Ill 

a passive : bd nar lee a lecud ocus dul dia tig she thought it a 
shame to be forsaken and to go home S. C. 44. 

367. The conjunction of the preposition with the infinitive 
is very idiomatic : iar n-atlugud buide do Dia after they had 

given thanks to God; ria n-dul don cath recam in n-eclais 

before we go into battle, we will visit the church; bdtar oc 61 
they were drinking, bdtar inna sessom they were standing. 

368. Denominatives may have the noun from which they 
are derived as an infinitive : 

iccaim II I cure, from ice salus, inf. do ice or do iccad; 
rannaim II I divide, from rand part, inf. do raind and do 

369. Radical verbs of the II. and III. conjugations form 
infinitive in -ad and -iud, -ud (§ 363). 

anad remain, pres. anaim II; 

molad praise, pres. molaim; 

scarad secedere, pres. scaraim (§ 277); 

lassad flame, pres. lassaim; 

cessad suffer, pres. cessaim; 

atlugud thank, pres. dep. atluchur III; 

brissiud break, pres. brissim; 

bddud dip, pres. bdidim; 

cuitbiud laugh at, i.e. con-tibiud, pres. tibim I laugh; 

im-rddiud reflect upon, pres. im-rddiu; 

snddud defend, pres. sndidim; 

loscud burn, pres. loiscim; 

oslogud open, pres. oslaicim. 

370. Stems in a as infinitives : 

cose blame, dat. do chose, in-chosc demonstrare, pres. in- 
chosig I significat; 

ainech (and anacul § 380) protect, present aingim I, non 
anich protegit nos (cf. § 266, § 286); 

tdrmach increase, add, dat. do thormuch, pres. do-for-maig 
Iauget(cf. §321); 

112 IX. Verb. 

indlach find ere, pres. ind-lung. I findo; 

fulach and fulang tolerare, dat. do imm-folung efficere, 
pres. fo-loing I sustinet ; 

rdd speak, dat. oc rdd, pres. no rddiu III loquor; 
scor loosen, dat. do scor, pres. scuirim III; 
cor ponere, dat. do chor, pres. cuirim III. 

371. Stems in i: 

guin wound, dat. do guin, pres. gonim I (cf. § 276, § 280, 
§ 295). 

erdil order, dat. do erdil, pres. erdilim III; 
foddil distribute, pres. fo-ddli III distribuit. 

372. Stems in ia: 

Jmre wake, dat. do fairly pres. fairim III; 
fuine cook, dat. icfune, ipres.fuinim III; 

gude pray, dat. do guidi, pres. guidim III (cf. § 290); 

urnaide expect, dat. oc urnaidi, pres. vr- 9 ur-naidim III ; 

nige wash, dat. oc nigi, pres. nigim III (cf. § 287, § 295); 

ithe eat, ace. ithi, pres. ithim (cf. § 287). 

373. Stems in ti 9 (a) the suffix is attached immediately to 
the root : 

breith bear, pres. berim I; tdbairt (cf. § 35 4 e ), also tabart 
(§ 124), pres. tafo«r I give; <3£?eri? say, dat. <io eper£, pres. epiur 
dico (preterite § 265, fut. § 275); 

mlith, blith (§41) grind, dat. do blith, pres. melim I; 

tomailt eat, pres. toimlim, i.e. do-melim (§ 261); 

cZe^A hide, conceal, pres. celim I; di-clith, di-cheilt (§ 354 e ) 
hide (§ 261). 

gleith depasci, pres. gelid I depascitur (past § 266). 

(b) The suffix is not joined immediately to the root: 

saigid, in-saigid go for, dat. do saigid (and do saichtin 
§ 37 5 a ), pres. saigim, in-saigim I (§ 261); 

saigid disputare, pres. saiges I qui dicit (fut. § 287); 

iarfaigid ask, pres. iarma-foich I quserit (preterite § 266, 
fut. §287); 

. Infinitive. 113 

cuindchid, cuingid ask, demand, pres. con-daig I quserit 
(fut. § 287). 

374 a . Stems in, 4u. These are very numerous, for they 
include the infinitives in -ad of the second conjugation and the 
infinitives in -ud of the third conjugation, (1) in which the suffix 
is attached to the present-stem (cf. § 363 and § 369) ; (2) in 
which the suffix is directly joined on to the radical syllable : 

Jiss know, dat. do fiuss (contracted dus), fetar I know 
(§ 351, fut. § 343) ; 

mess to judge, dat. do mess, pres. dep. midiur (perf. § 349, 
fut. § 344). 

374 b . Stems in ta seem to be : 

techt go, dat. do thecht, pres. tiagim I; im-thecht ambulatio 
(ace. pi. imthechta Wb. 28°) with im4iagam ambulamus Wb. 
6 a (fut. § 285, past § 269) ; 

tuidecht come, pret. tuidchetar, do-dechatar venerunt (§ 302). 

37 5 a . Infinitives in -tiu in the nominative, -ten in the 
genitive (§ 152) ; 

airitiu accipere, pres. conj. air-ema suscipiat (pret. § 26 6, 
fut. § 277) ; 

fo-ditiu tolerare, dat. do foditin, pres. fo-daim I patitur 

ditiu to protect, dat. do ditin, fut. du-ema vindicabit (pret. 
§266, fut. §277); 

toimiiu think {do-fo-mitiii)^ dat. do thoimtin, pres. dep. 
do-moiniur III puto (perf. § 347, fut. § 342) ; 

teistm profundere, profusio, dat. do thestin, pres. doesmei 
profundunt (do-ess-semet) ; 

tuistiu generare, creare, dat. do thuistin, pres. dqfuisim 
generat (do-fo-es-sim) ; 

acsiu to see, dat. do acsin, aiscin (§ 80), pres. adchiu ; deicsiu 
to see, dat. do decsin, pres. deccu (§ 264) ; 

cl6si to hear, dat. do chlosin and with reintroduction of the 
tjiarclostin (§ 357), pres. dep. door audio (preterite pass. § 326 b ); 
I. G. 8 

114 IX. Verb. 

taidbsiu to show, dat. do ihaidbsin, pres. pass, do-ad-badar 
demonstrator (fat. § 287) ; 

epeltu to die, dat. do epeltin, pres. atbail perit (§ 261) ; 

Ace. sirtin (beside siriud) to seek, pres. sirim III ; 

Dat. do saichtin (and do saigid § 373), pres. saigim I adeo ; 

tichtu, tichte to come, dat. oc tichtain, ace. co tichtin usque 
ad adventum, pres. tic venit (§ 261) ; beside dat. tichtain ia a 
similar sense tiachtain ; 

Dat. do riachtain to come, preterite rSacAtf yenit § 266; 

Ace. torachtain to come, pres. toraig I venit (past § 266) : 
with toracht processus, successio {do-fo-racht), tiarmdracht se- 
quence, pursuit (do-iarm-fo-racht) § 374*\ 

In the same way fortacht help, to help, ace. fortachtain 
and fortacht (belonging to techt come, pres. tiagaim? cf. 
fortiag Gloss on conniveo Z. 2 p. 428), changes in flexion. 

375*. Here also cases occur in which the t of the suffix has 
not been immediately united with the radical syllable (cf. § 356). 

digthiu to fear, pres. dep. dgur\ do saigthin adire beside 
saichtin ; 

Dat. ocferthain, pres. feraim fdilti I bid welcome. 

Dat. do cantain (beside dofor-cetul § 380), pres. canim I. 

375°. Foisitiu confiteri, confessio, dat. do foisitin, as in- 
finitive to the present fosisiur confiteor (§ 336) is strange. 

376. The infinitives in mm, m (suffix mann § 160) joined 
immediately to roots in ng, nd, nt (cf. § 76): 

leimm to leap, dat. do lemaim, pres. lingim I (§ 261) ; 

ceimm to go, pres. cingim I; tochim to stride, pres. do- 
chingim I (§ 261) ; 

in-greimm to pursue, dat. oc ingrimmim, pres. in-grennim I 

foglimm, foglaim to learn, pres. fo-gliunn I, I learn (§ 261); 

fordiuglaim to swallow, fut. for-tam-diucuilset me vorabunt 
ML 44 c , jy&rtic. for-diiicailsi absorpti Ml. 50 r, d.fordiuglantaid 

tdthim, tuitim to fall, dat. do thuitim, pres. tuitim I (§ 264 c ); 

Infinitive. 115 

beimm to beat, dat. do beim, pres. benim I (§261). 

377. Infinitives in -om {-am) and -em : 

cosnom, cosnam contendere, defendere, dat. do chosnom, 
pres. cosnaim I, fut, pi. 3 cossenat (§ 275), . perf. sg. 3 ro 
chosain ; 

sessom, sessam to stand, dat. ina sessom standing (§ 367), 
. pres. sessaim, cf. § 336; 

gnim to do, dat. do gnim, pres. gniim III ; fognam to serve, 
dat. do fognam, pres. fo-gniu (§ 264); 

denum, denom, denam to do, dat. Jo denom, pres. denim III. 

These infinitives are declined like masculine % stems (gen. 
gnimo, denmo, § 126), but other forms also appear analogous to 
feminine a stems (§ 110) : 

accaldam alloqui, dat. do accaldam, ace. accaldim, pres. 
dep. adglddur (§ 336) ; 

sechem to follow, ace. ./H sechem and /W sechim, pres. dep. 
sec^r (§ 333) ; 

cretem belief, to believe, pres. cretim III, is only feminine. 

378. Infinitives in n (suffix na, ni) are rarer : bilain to 
reap, dat. oc bicain, pres. bong aim I break, reap (§ 261); sHan 
sleep, to sleep, pres.ybaim I sleep (§ 56). 

379. Infinitives in -un, -an in the nominative (suffix 
-ana), some of which have a masculine and some of which have 
a feminine flexion : 

orcun to kill, pres. orcaid I occidit ; es-orcun caedere, dat. 
oc esorcuin; tuarcun triturare, dat. do thuarcuin, pres. do-fu- 
aircc triturat (§ 67, § 284) ; 

blegun to milk, dat. do blegun, pres. bligim I (perf. § 295) ; 

lecun (and lecud) to leave, dat. do lecun, pres. lecim III ; 

imbresan altercari, lis, dat. oc imbresun, pres. imfresna II 
adversatur (im-fres-sna) belongs to § 370. 

380. Infinitives in I in the nominative : 

forcetul, forcital, n. to teach, doctrine (beside do chantain 
§ 375), dat. do forcetul, pres. for-chun, -chanim I (§ 261); 


116 IX. Verb. 

intinscital to begin, beginning, pres. intimcana II incipit 
(ind-do-ind-scana, cf. § 246) ; 

tindnaeul tradere, traditio, pres. do-ind-naich distribuit 
(past § 266, fut. § 287) ; 

adnacul to bury, grave, pres. sec. pass, adnaicthe (fut. 

gabdl and gabdil f. to take, dat. do gabdil, pres. gabim I 

imdegail f. to guard, dat. do imdegail, pres. im-dichim vin- 
dico, sg. 3 imdig ; 

atmail to confess, pres. pi. 3 ad-daimet ; 

tiesdl, imperat. sg. 3 ticsath a chruich Gloss on toilet 
crucem suam, Cod. Camar. (Z. 2 p. 1005). 

381. Infinitives in end, enn. These appear to have taken 
origin from the Latin gerund : legend Latin leger'e, gen. legind, 
Lat. legendi, dat. do legund; scribend Lat. scribere, gen. 
scribint, Lat. scribendi, dat. do scribund; in the same way is 
formed dilgend exterminare, dat. do dilgiunn, to do-lega de- 
lebit Ml. 62 b , dilegthith exterminator. 

382. But all the forms designated infinitives in the 
preceding are equally well used as simple nomina actionis : 
fortacht help and to help, imrddud reflection and to reflect, 

61 draught and to drink (as infinitive to ibim bibo). The 
profusion of forms which are used as infinitives is not ex- 
hausted by those above given, for every nomen actionis may 
be so used. The form of the stem is hard to determine in 
im-dibe circumcisio, circumcidere, to-be decisio, decidere, pres. 
im-di-bnim, do-fui-bnim and other compounds of benim, as 
also dula } dul to go, infinitive of luid, do-luid he went 
(§ 302). 

Yerb Substantive. 

383. Four different roots serve for the substantive verb : 
(1) as, (2) std, (3) vel, (4) bhu. 

Roots as, sta. 117 

1. Root as. 

384. Paradigms of the root as, present amm I am : 

Sg. 1 amm, am, im PL ammi 

2 at adib 

3 is, relative as it, at. 

385. Also in impersonal flexion : is me French c'est 
moi, is tH c'est toi, is snisni c'est nous, is sissi (also it sib) 
c'est vous. Stokes (Beitrage vn. p. 40 note) detects in is-am 
(also is-im), is-at, bid-at (I am, thou art, thou shalt be) another 
form of impersonal flexion, being formed by suffixing pronominal 
elements: but probably this am, at is the verbal "I am, thou 
art," and the whole formula an emphatic "it is that I am, it 
is that thou art, it will be that thou art." This view is 
corroborated by the is it, mentioned in O' Donovan's Ir. Gr. 
p. 162 : isit imda a locha many are its lakes (literally "it is 
that are"). 

2. Root sta. 

386. Paradigms of the root sta, indicative and conjunctive 
present. Usually composed attd, atd ad td or aith-td est, or itd, 
the latter being either identical with the former or td with the 
relative in- ubi. Instead of the simple td very often da appears 
(cf. § Gl), e.g. after the particles of comparison ol, in (an) : ol 
ddas, indds (andds) quam est. The absolute forms placed in 
parenthesis are taken from O'Donovan's Grammar. 




Sg. 1 itdu, atto, atu 

ol ddu, d6 


2 itdi, atdi 

ol ddi 


3 itd, attda, atd 

ni td, rel. ol daas, dds 


(td $e) 

PI. 1 itaam, attaam 

ni tarn, dam 


2 ataaith, ataad 

ni tad, dad 



3 itaat, ataat 

ni tat, rel. ol date 


118 IX Verb. 


Sg. 1 ni ta } conda (ut sim) PL 1 ni tan, con-dan 

2 2 con-dath 

3 3 con-dat. 

387. Deviating indicative forms occur in na-te, na-de non 
est, ca-te quis est ? ubi est % ca-teet quid sunt ? 

In like manner to this verb or to amm (§ 384) belong the 
remnants of the verbal forms in the following unions with the 
conjunctions ce> cia (with conj.) although, md (with conj.) if,' 
mani if not, co n- that, and farther with dian- cui, nan- qui, 
quae, quod non, in- ubi : 

Sg. 3 cid mad manid conid dianid (diant) nand inid 

cesu masu 
PI. 2 mad (Wb. 9 a ) 

3 cit mat nandat 

cetu matu 

From conid (V) with further suffix condid and condib ut sit 
are formed, the latter of which contains distinctly a form from 
biu (§ 389). 

3. Koot vel. 

388. The root vel in Old Irish occurs only in the 3 sg. 
It governs the accusative and often answers to the French il j 
a : sg. 3 fil (fail), relative file; conj. fel, also feil The latter 
is also proved as a relative form after the neuter sg. The 
remaining persons are in Old Irish expressed impersonally: 
con-dwm-fel ut essem, nis fil non sunt. But a personal flexion 
also comes into use : ni filet (failet) non sunt, filet qui sunt ; 
and in Modern Irish go bh-fuilim that I am, 2 go bh-fuilir, 
3 go bh-fuil se, pi. 1 go bh-fuilimid, 2 go bh-fuilti. 3 go 

4. Root bhu*. 

389. Paradigms of the root bku. Almost in every tense 
there are two series of forms, which appear to be different 
according to the formation of the stem, as the Latin fio and 

* Stokes identifies Uu with Latin vivo. 

Roots vel, bhu. 


Latin fuam or Skr. bhavdmi. The forms (a) of the first series 
have a stronger signification (to be = existere, versari) : the 
forms (b) of the second series serve as a simple copnla. The 
same distinction of signification may be observed in the 
perfect, although here the different forms seem not to be of 
different origin. 







(a) abs. 



abs. conj. 

. 1 biu 





2 (Mi) bi 


, bdt ni-bd, co m-ba 

3 Mid, bith 


&H, 24 

beith ni 



ni-b, ro-p, roi-b 

•el. feus, bis 



, 1 bimmi 



bemmi ro 


bami co m-ban 




beitlie ni 


bede arna bad 

3 biit, bit 



beit t bit ro 


co rn-bat 

rel. bite 

beta, bete 




a) . 




;. l 



bd, ba rop-sa 

2 bi 



bd rop-su 

3 biith, bid 



beth, beth 

bdd, bad 

bdi, bdi, b&i ba, combo 
robe, rabi ni bu, nib, rop 

I. 1 


, &cwt bimmis bemmis 


2 biid, bith 








comtis, roibtis 

bdtar, bdtir robtar 



(a) abs. 


(b) abs. 


(a) (b) 

j. 1 bia 


nt beinn 

2 bia 

ro betha 

3 bieid, biaid 

ro bia 


ni ba 

no Mad bed, ro pad 

rel. bias 


I. 1 bemmit 

ni piam 




ni bieid, Med 

3 &t£t£, &iat£ 

, &ei£ 

ni Mat 


ro pat 


rel. fcette 





390. Negation in the principal sentence is expressed by ni 
(ni), in dependent and relative sentences na, nach, nad (nd, 
ndch, ndd). The negative generally stands first in a sentence 
and can only be preceded by a conjunction, or in a relative 
sentence by a preposition, and in an interrogative sentence 
by the interrogative particle. JSfa and nach are also used with 
the imperative and conjunctive in principal sentences. Neither 
...nor : ni...n&. 

391. For ni, ni con often occurs, and later no co, nocho, 
nochon, literally not that; the counterpart of which is the 
strong assertion ni nad non quin. 

In the relative nand (nant) qui, quse, quod non est, pi. 
nandat besides a pronominal element a verbal form is- con- 
tained (cf. § 387). 


392. The interrogative particle is in {inn) always with a 
retained nasal, but it is written im before b. In the indirect 
question dus in (dus for do fiuss ad sciendum) is used. 
"Why" is expressed by ca, co; "why not" by cani (cain), 

In the double question, the Latin is expressed 
by in... fa (ba), and the Latin «trum...annon or necne by in... 
fanacc. The rhetorical question is introduced by innd, inndd 
or... not, Latin annon. 

393. Ace, aicc as well as naicc, naiho, niiho stand for no. 
In direct speech the affirmative particles £m, dm are often met 
with in the sense of surely, verily, in sooth. 




394. Conjunctions of principal sentences copulative, dis- 
junctive, adversative or causal are the following : 

ocus, acuss 

is I and 

sceo ) 

dana, dono } als0 

eid, cit (cf. § 396)j 

no, nd or 

immorro* \ 

noch V but, yet 

cammaib ) 

act, acht besides, except, but 

acht...nammd except only, but only 

acht chena ) 

. , \ however, yet 
arax, araide) ' J 

didiu hence 

tra, thra) thence> ^ 

dino ) 

iddn namely, Latin id est. 

ar, air for 

emith...emith as well as 

tin. .Am (for imb, im-ba)\ 

im...fa (ba) > sivc.sive 

ce..xe, cid...cid ) 

meit...meit, quantum... tantum, sieut...ita 

ni hed a melt... act not only.., but also neither... nor. 

395. Some conjunctions are almost invariably written in 
abbreviation in ancient MSS. : 

ocus and : 7, abbreviation for Latin et, 
no or : 1-, abbreviation for Latin vel, 
idon namely : .%., abbreviation for Latin id est, 
immorro but : im. 

dana dono, dino ; da, do, dl. For the different marks of 
abbreviation in Old Irish, see Zimmer, Glossse Hib. p. liii. 

396. The following list includes the most important of 
those conjunctions which introduce a secondary proposition or 
a subordinate sentence : 

(a) Conditional* 

md Greek el 

dia n- Greek £cw, orav 

mani, main if not 

cen {cHn) co although not 

cen md unless 

(b) Concessive. 
ce, ci, cia although 
cid, cesu, ciasu quamvis sit 
cit, cetu quamvis siut. 

* There seems to be an old Irish form immurgu, e.g. in the poems 
of the Milan Codex (Goid. 2 p. 18, and p. 20). 


X. Particles. 

To cen md belong cenmitha, cenmotha save, except. On cid, 
cit cf. § 394 and § 387. 


a n- 

in tan, in tain 
resiu before 
iarsindl after 


(c) Temporal. 

cein, cttne so long as, whilst 

6 since 

co, co W-, con until 

lase whilst that, through. 

{d) Comparative, 
amail, amal just as, as if 

(e) Causal, 
6ir {Hair), 6re -^ 

fo bith, fo bithin 
dig, deig, ddig 
fo ddig, fo dagin 
ol, 61 mide 

i'ol sodain 

The sentence at the head of which these conjunctions are is 
a relative sentence. The relative pronoun is often omitted. 

398. Sech should also be included among the causal con- 
junctions. The original sense is beyond that, besides that, but 
it is not rarely used in the sense of quoniam, siquidem. 

The formula sech is has much the sense of the Latin 
nimirum. The form sechib he, sechip he, sechi he without the 
remainder of the verbal form has much the sense of the Latin 


(/) Final. 

ara n- 

co, con, co ro, corro, cor) 

arna, arnach, arnad 

cona, conna, connach, coni\ lest 

ar ddig na 


(g) Consecutive. 

> that, so that 

c<ma > COBna lsothatnot 
connach ) 

co, co n- 

co ro, corro, cor 

cen con without that. 

If ara n- (that) comes to stand before a double consonant, 
ari n- appears instead of it : ari m-bad ut esset, cf. § 7. 

Prefixes, 123 

400. It is very difficult to prove any distinction of mean- 
ing between the forms co, co n-, con. This conjunction answers 
to the German dass in declaratory sentences (negative coni, 
cona, conna, connach), and also to the German da at the 
head of principal sentences standing in the second, place, to the 
German und da in simple narration, and lastly often stands at 
the head of a principal sentence before the verb, when it is 
apparently redundant (negative ni con, no co, nochon § 391). 


401. To the list of particles which as prefixes modify the 
sense of a noun especially belong the privative particles an-, 
in-, am-, es-, e-, di- : firen just, an-firen unjust ; asse easy, anse 
difficult ; gndth known, in-gnad extraordinary ; reid smooth, 
am-reid uneven ; cava friend, es-care enemy ; nert strength, 
e-nirt weak; cosmil like, e-csamil unlike, different; treb 
dwelling, di-thrub desert (also a form with a nasal ; buaid 
victory, dim-buaid discomfiture). 

Whilst these particles not merely negative the sense of the 
nouns but give them a reverse sense, the noteworthy particles 
neb-, neph- answer in composition to a bare not (the German 
nicht) and often represent the negative b>efore an infinitive : 
tri neb-airitin I6ge through not taking reward; neph-fodlide 
indivisible; neb-marbtu immortality; ni something, neph-ni 

402. The particles su~, so- and du-, do-, both causing 
aspiration (cf. § 96), express the sense of goodness and badness 
like the Greek €v- and Sv<s-: cruth form, so-chruth beautiful, 
do-chruth ugly, later by transition into the ^-declension sochraid, 
dochraid (cf. Latin deformis from forma). The same antithesis 
is expressed by the adjectives deg-, dag- and droch- (Sanskrit 
druh) : dag-gmm a good deed, drog-gnim a bad deed. 

The particle mi (causing aspiration) turns the meaning of a 
noun simply in malam partem: gnim deed, mi-gnim misdeed; 
toimtiu opinion, mi-thoimtiu evil feeling. 

124 X Particles. . 

403. The particles ro-, /or-, er- have an intensitive sense : 
ro-mJbr too great, very great; ro-chdin very beautiful; in ro- 
grad the great love; for-granna very ugly ; for- derg very red ; 
erchosmil very like. 

iK- and der- are also used intensitively : di-m6r and c?er- 
mdr hugely great; but on the other hand di (§ 401) is also 
privative as is der- : der-6il penuria, for-6il abundantia. This 
der- is also found in composition with verbs : con der-manam- 
TYiar ut obliviscamur, cf. do-moiniur puto § 336. In arna der- 
gaoa ne deficiat, beside di-gbail deminutio, the der- changes 
with di- and appears, at least in this case, to be derived from 
di-ro. This also appears to be the origin of the intensitive der- 
for besides 6 der-choiniud Gloss on abundantiori tristitia Wb. 
14 d is also found dero-choinet desperant 21 b (Z. 2 864). 


l b , In Old Irish the long accent, especially as regards i 
and u is frequently expressed by doubling the vowel : gniim 
factum, sciith molestia, rtiun mysterium. As Hi, li is related 
to the Latin livor, and cluu, clu to the Sanskrit gravas, it is 
possible that the double vowel in certain words may have a 
certain etymological justification, but not always, as e.g. in 
rii = Latin rex. 

25 b . In most pure and spurious diphthongs the long 
accent properly belongs to the first element, which, judging 
from the modern pronunciation, was in most cases the pre- 
dominant vowel. But in MSS. the long accent often stands 
on the second element, even if this is only a vowel of infection 
(§ 18): cidn long, $cidm Latin schema, coinid he wails, hudin 
of us, budid victory, for the more correct ciaM,scia7n,c6inid,htiain f 
buaid\ hi ceim in gradum (nom. pi. cZmenri § 162), breic (ace. 
sg. of brec mendacium), buaid victory (gen. bilada § 122), bai 
fuit, for the more correct ceim, brUc, buaid, bdi, and so perhaps 
also taich Ml. 32 b , 24 for tdich (cf. § 295). 

In many cases the decision is difficult. Probably the old 
forms eonu (§ 22, ace. pi. of en bird § 74) and eoin (nom. pi.) 
ought to be e6nu, eoin. In the same way ad-geuin cognovit, 
dor-raid- chiuir quos redemit (3 sg. perf. § 298) should be ad- 
geuin, dor-raid- chiuir, but, on the other hand, the eo of the 
future, mentioned § 281, is written eo in the modern language, 
see O'Donovan's Grammar, p. 195. In the same way the o in 

126 Addenda. 

the words ceol music, seol sail (which are already so written 
in Old Irish), predominates so that the writing ceol, set>l 
cannot be disputed. 

25°. The long accent is also met with over syllables in 
which two vowels which originally belonged to separate 
Syllables coalesce to one syllable (cf. § 81). Originally in 
most such cases the first vowel may have predominated in the 
pronunciation. For Old Irish at any rate ina diaid after him 
(dead finis, Cymr. diwedd), teora f. three, bin, beo living (§ 31), 
friu towards them (fri for frith, § 174), liu, leo with them, 
appear to be more accurate than ina didid, teora, bi4, beo, frill, 
UH, led. The same is true as to drtii Druid, gen, druad, 
dat. druid and drui, drudd, druid. The Modern Irish draoi 
Druid is pronounced as with a short u and a long i. 

25 d . In the 1 and 3 pi. of the secondary tenses -mais, -tais, 
also appear for -mis, -tis. Here the written form is not cor- 
rectly dentdis they would do, but dentais, for the a is in such 
cases only introduced in consequence of an existing or once 
existing broad vowel in the preceding syllable. Cf. § 25 4 b . 

25 e . In Old Irish a long accent often appears over short 
vowels before a double consonant, especially before grouped or 
doubled r, I, n: mdrb dead, londas indignatio (Ml. 18 a , 10 ed. 
Ascoli), and here (Ml. 26 c , 2), 611 amplus (Ml. 20 a , 3). How- 
ever this inclination to pronounce the vowel long in such words 
has been neither permanent nor consistently carried out, 
although it may have been repeated in different periods and 

25 f . In Middle Irish the sign of length is sometimes 
found in places where it has not been proved in Old Irish, 
e.g. over the heavy deponent terminations in -an 3 sg. ro 
charastdr amavit, 1 pi. do-deochammar venimus, 3 pi. asbertatdr 
dixerunt, 3 pi. bdtdr fuerunt. This lengthening seems to have 
come in under the influence of a secondary tone which requires 
consideration in Irish for words of several syllables. 

Addenda. 127 

25 g . The chief accent was early thrown back from the 
termination of the word, as may be concluded from the mutila- 
tion of the syllables of flexion. But certain phonetic appear- 
ances demonstrate positively many cases in which it did not 
stand on the radical syllable. Cf. §§ 25, 42, 46, 60, 61, 62, 
77, 81, 83, 108 b , 247, 275, 286, 295, 300, 325. 

25 b . In verse a short terminal vowel not unfrequently 
rhymes with a long syllable of a stem. For example in a poem 
of the Codex S. Pauli cele (socius) rhymes with re (time), and 
messe (I) with gle (splendidus). Also Sc. 37, 15 airgdidu (dat. 
of airgdide silver) with cM (fame). From these and similar 
appearances it would be unsafe without further evidence to 
consider as long numerous terminal syllables which are never 
found in Old Irish prose with a long mark upon them. 

207 b . The possessive pronouns of the third person are in 
Old Irish (e. g. in the Milan Codex) very often found with a 
long mark : a ainm his name, d n-ic their salvation. 

254 b . The 1 and 2 pi. active of the absolute flexion are in 
Old Irish but slightly supported by MSS., and the same is true 
in later Irish of the past tenses, in which the absolute flexion 
comes gradually to be altogether disused. To judge from the 
existing material the oldest forms of the terminations are -me 
and -mit in the 1st and -te in the 2 pi.; present bermme, 
be'rmmit, S-past carsimme {carste), and so on; also in § 275 
it ought to be (ceclmimme), "bermme" But, especially in 
Middle Irish and Modern Irish there are also forms in -mi, 
~mai, -ti, -tai, which Stokes has taken into his paradigms : 
carstai amavistis, testai ibitis, bermai feremus ; the a in -mai, 
-tai is only introduced in consequence of a suppressed broad 
vowel before the termination especially when the preceding 
syllable contains no slender vowel, so Mrmai for berammi. 
In Modern Irish the i of this termination (probably under 
the influence of a secondary tone) is pronounced long, as is 
shown by O'Donovan, Gr., p. 219, beirimid ferimus, beirthi, 
beirthidh (dh at the end is silent, cf. § 3) fertis. If the radical 

128 Addenda. 

syllable contains a broad vowel aoi (i. e. a long i preceded by 
a slightly articulated dull vowel ul) has established itself in 
the termination, molamaoid we praise, moltaoi ye praise, mol- 
famaoid we shall praise. Cf. p. 126, § 25 d . 

25 4 C . From the ordinary formation of the relative of the 
3 sg. in -es, -as there deviate : file qui est § 388, teite qui it, the 
relative form of teit, i.e. do-eit § 264 c ; to which may be 
added the perfect form boie qui erat (Goid. 2 p. 87, Book of 

But there also occurs a preterite teite, teiti he went, besides 
teit, without any relative signification. In the same way luide 
he went, with luid § 302. Stokes (Beitr. zur Yergl. Sprach- 
forsch. vii. p. 40, 42) is inclined in such cases to separate a 
pronoun -e, -i sometimes as nominative, sometimes as dative or 
accusative : leigth-i duillen he threw a javelin ; geibth-i Loeg 
cloich Loeg takes it, a stone ; is Cuchulainn cobarthe, it is 
Cuculainn who would have helped him. Cf. § 205 et seq., but 
on the other hand there are the preterites ending in -ta, -tha 
§ 309, to which perhaps some of these forms belong e.g. 
budigthe he thanked T. E. 14. 

27 2 b . Stokes has lately (Three Middle-Irish Homilies, 
Preface, p. ix) explained as of a particular imperfect form, 
though not expressly ro chreti, yet similar forms of verbs of 
the JLI conjugation, e. g. ro labra he spake, ro scribai he wrote, 
and especially (without ro) adcobra he would, Hy. 2, 45. 

27 6 b . A reduplicated future has also been proved in carim 
II amo: ni con chechrat act ni bas tol doib they will only love, 
what is their desire (Gloss on et erunt homines se ipsos 
amantes Wb. 30 c , 2) ; as a rule it forms the B-future, § 282. 

289 b . Difficult to explain is dudichestar (i. miastair i. huaid 
fesin), Gloss on ducetur in the clause gravis illi vita tristisque 
ducetur Ml. 30 d . The future passive should be du-diastar, as 
is shown by du-diastae § 321 and du-di § 287. 


Pieces V., VI. have not hitherto been printed. The Echtra Condla 
Chaim was published by O'Beirne Crowe, Journal Arch, and Hist. 
Association, 1874, p. 118. The learner had better begin with the 
Old Irish sentences in I. Of the remaining pieces V. is especially easy, 
for IV. Hennessy's exact translation may be examined. Italics indicate 
the expansion of a contraction in the MS. 

Sentences from the Old Irish glossed MSS. 

1. Ni mebul lemm precept sosceli (Wb. l b ). 

2. Is uisse log a saithir do chach (Wb. 29 a ). 

3. Is si ar n-ires hi sin at£ mor dechur etir deacht ocus 
doinacht (ML 26 b ). 

4. Is triit dorolgetha ar pecthi dutin (Wb. 26 c ). 

5. Ni ru foraithmenair Duid isin t-salm so a n-durigni 
Abisolon fris (Ml. 24«). 

6. Denid attlugud buide do Dia di each maith dogni frib 
(Wb. 27 a ). 

7. Sech ni coimnactar ar namit son fortanbristisni (Gloss on 
obprimi nequivimus Ml. 135 b ). 

8. Ni bat litre nota aram cia scribtair hi fers (Sg. 6 b ). 

9. A.mal fongniter idil, sic fognither donaib anib (Wb. 
27 b ). 

10. Na taibred each tiaib breic imm alaile (Wb. 27 b ). 

11. Gaibid immib a n-etach mace coimsa, zonal nondad 
maicc c6ima (Induite vos ergo, sicut electi dei sancti et dilecti 
per viscera misericordise, benignitatem...Wb. 27 b ). 

12. Attlugud boide do Dia di bar n-icc trit-som (Wb. 

I. G. 9 

130 Pieces for Beading. 

13. Aclib moga-si d&no, ata" far coimdiu innim (Wb. 27 c ). 

14. Is airi am cimbid-se bore no predcbim in ruin sin (Wb. 
27 c ). 

15. Bid di bar n-ag-si ron bia-ni indocbal (Wb. 25 a ). 

16. Is he in tecttaire maitb condaig indocbail dia thigerni 
(Wb. 8 d ). 

17. Ro bad betbu dom, dian chomalninn (Wb. 3 C ). 

18. Ni riat na danu diadi ar a n-indeb domunde (Wb. 
28 c ). 

19. Ni tairmthecht rechto, mani airgara recht (Wb. 2 C ). 

20. Secb ni thartsat som ni comtachtmar-ni (Wb. 24 b ). 

21. Berir do imchomarc uaidib (Wb. 31 d ). 

22. Ar osailcther hires tri degnim ; innarbar (read innar- 
banar) hires demo tri droch-gnimu (Ml. 14°). 

23. Ceni tormastar ho melt is trom cenae ho aicniud ut 
sunt lapides (Ml. 20 a ). 

24. Tairchechuin resiu forchuimsed (Wb. 4 d ). 

25. ISTob soirfa-si Dia dinab fochidib (Wb. IP). 

26. Is gle lim-sa rom bia buaid (Wb. ll a ). 

27. Nachin rogba uall (Wb. 15 d ). 

28. Mani ro chosea som a muntir in tain biis cen grad, ni 
uisse toisigecht sochuide do (Wb. 28 b ). 

29. Is immaille ro scaich in bole do blith ocus in t-immun 
do denam (Lib. Hy. ll a ). 

30. Dobert goiste imma bragait fadesin conid marb, huare 
nad n-digni Abisolon a chomairli (Ml. 23 b ). 

31. Foillsigthir as n-isel in d6inacht iar n-aicniud, huare as 
in deacht fodarait limine ocus no da fortachtaigedar (Ml. 25 c ). 

32. Is hed di (or dino) alligitime, scarad fri indeb in domuin 
ocus tol Dse do denum (Gloss on non coronatur nisi legitime 
certaverit, Wb. 30 a ). 

33. Is do thabirt diglae berid in claideb sin (Wb. 6 a ). 

34. "Cia atagegalidathar" ol Sencha. "Atagegallar-sa" 
ol Triscoth (L. TJ. p. 19 b ). 

35. Cid bee cid mar ind inducbal 6 dia tar hesi denmo ind 
libuir, bith mi de do buith dait-siu hi coimthecht oco (Sg. 2 a ). 

Pieces for Beading. 131 

36. Ani dodesta di chomalnad caesta Christ dom-sa, is 
occa attoo ; is hed dino desta di suidiu dul martre tar far ceim- 
si (Wb. 26 d ). 

37. Ato oc combaig friss im sechim a gmme et im gabail 
desimreclite de, conroissinn cutrummus friss et congm-som frim- 
sa oc suidiu (Wb. 26 d ). 

38. Manid tesarbi ni di maith assa gnimaib in tain romboi 
etir tuaith is uisse a airitiu i n-seclis (sc. viduae, Wb. 28 d ). 

39 a . Forcain som hie servos obidire et servire dominis arna 
erbarat domini robtar irlithi ar moge dtiun resiu tised hiress 
robtar anirlithi iarum ; ni ail tra in sin do epert ol se-som ar 
ni do forcitul anirlatad dodechuid (Wb. 27 c ). 

39 b . Arna aerbarthar rop tar irlithi ar moge dun, con tanicc 
hiress, et it anirlithi iarum (Wb. 29 b ). 

40. In tan forcomnacuir in gnim so crochtha Crist ocus 
dodechuid temel tarsin grein, asrubartatar fir betho : tiagar 
huain dochum hl(ru)salem dus cid forchomnacuir indi ind 
inaim so, air is ingnad linn a n-adciam (Ml. 1 6°). 

41. In tan tet a laithe di chiunn cosnaib gnimaib ocus 
cosnaib imnedaib gniter and, dotet iarum imthanu aidche tar 
haesi co n-dermanammar-ni inna imned sin i m-biam isind 
laithiu tri chumsanad inna aidche dod-iarmorat (Ml. 21°). 

42. Ba b6s leu-som dobertis da boc leu dochum tempuil 
ocus no leicthe indala n-ai fon dithrub co pecad in popuil ocus 
dobertis maldachta foir ocus noircthe dino and o popul tar cenn 
a pectha ind aile (Tur. 110 c ). 

43. Amal doteit side do gabail baiguil in tan nad n-acastar 
et nad forchluinter, isamlid dorriga Dia do brath in tain n&d 
tomnibther a thichtu (Wb. 25 h ). 

44. Cia rud chualatar ilbelre et ce nus labratar, ni pat 
ferr de ; is follus dino nanma ar brig labrad ilbelre (Wb. 12 d ). 

45. In tan durairngert Dia du Abracham a maith sin, 
ducuitig tarais fadeissin ar ni robe nech bad huaisliu tar a 
toissed (Wb. 33 d ). 

46. Is di lus bis forsnaib caircib dognither in chorcur buide 
(Tur. 115). 


132 Pieces for Reading. 

47. Isel fri art, tailciud fri gargg, caith a uuair, each 6in 
dod-gena samlid bid reid riam cacli n-amreid (Bern. 117 a ). 

48. Is dosaidi-siu for hirubinaib co n-darbais freendarcus 
du fortachtae dunaib trebaib so dia soirad i. triub Effraim rl. 
(ML 209). 

49. Frange esurienti panem tuum et egenos vagosque indue 
in donmm tuum, et cum videris nudum cooperi eum et carnem 
tuum ne despexeris. A duine fireoin ar Isu roind do bairgin 
frisin m-bocht tahair cendsa ocus aigidecht don fairind recait a 
less. Dia n-accara nech cen etach tabair etach do. Cid iat do 
cbarait fen atchitbera i m-bocbta airchis diib (Leabh. Breac p. 
47 b , 37 ; diafaccara nech cen etach imbe ibid. p. 67 b , 21). 

50. Caput Christi oculus Isaise frons nassium Noe labia 
lingua Salomonis collum Temathei mens Beniamin pectus Pauli 
unctus Iohannis fides Abrache. scs. scs. scs. dns. ds. sabaoth. — 
Cauir 1 ani siu each dia im du chenn ar chenngalar iarna gabail 
dobir da sale it bais ocus dabir im du da are ocus fort chulatha 
ocus cani du pater fo thri lase ocus dobir cros dit sailiu for och- 
tar do chinn ocus dogni a toirand sa d&no TJ. fort chiunn. 

51. (After another spell.) Focertar in so do gres it bois 
lain di uisciu oc indlut ocus dabir it beulu ocus imbir in da 
mer ata nessam do lutain it belaib cechtar ai a leth (from the 
Cod. Sg. Z. 2 p. 949). 

52. Ni taibre grad for nech causa a pectha no a chaingnima 
ar biit alaili and ro finnatar a pec the resiu docoi grad forru, 
alaili is iarum ro finnatar; berir dawo frilaa bratha (Wb. 29 a ). 

1 Canir (Zimmer). 

Pieces for Reading. 133 


Terse from the Codex Sangallensis. 

The text is from Grammatica Celtica (ed. 2), p. 953, and Nigra, Reliquie 
Celtiche, i. p. 18 ff. Cf. Stokes, Beitr. zur VergL Spr. vm. p. 320; Irish 
Glosses, pp. 44, 62, 70. 

1 Sg. p. 112: 

Is acher in gaith innocht fufuasna fairggse findfolt 
ni agor reimin mora minn dond laechraid lainn oa Loch- 

2 Sg. p. 203: 

Dom farcai fidbaidae fal fom chain loid luin Mad nad eel 
huas mo lebran indlinech fom chain trirech inna n-en. 

3 Sg. p. 204: 

Fomm chain coi menu medair mass hi ni-brot glass de 

dindgnaib doss 
debrath n-om choimmdiu coima cain scribaimm foroid... 1 

4 Sg. p. 229: 

Gaib do chuil isin charcair ni ro is chluim na colcaid 
truag in sin amail bachal rot giuil ind srathar dodcaid. 

1 The two absent syllables are unfortunately illegible in the MS. 
The last word must be a rhyme to doss, foroid with the defective 
penultimate syllable of the verse may contain a rhyme to cdima. Cf. 
indlinech . . . trirech 2, 2; mass . . . glass 3, 1. Perhaps fo'roida ross? 

134 Pieces for Reading, 



(L. XL p. 120.) 

The same text is found in H. 2. 16 (T. C. D.) col. 399, ibid. col. 914, 
Egerton, 1783 (Brit. Mus.) and other MSS. 

1. Cid dia n-apar Art Oenfer 1 M insa. La ro boi Condla 
Ru&d mac Cuind Chetchathm<7 for laim a athar i n-uachtor 
*' Usnig, co n-acca in mnai i n-etuch anetargnaid na dochwm. 
Asbert Condla : " Can dodeochad a ben?" or se. "Dodeochad- 
sa " for in ben " a tirib beo ait inna bi bas no peccad na imor- 
bns. Domelom fleda buana can rithgnom, cainconirac leind 
cen debaid. Sid mor itaam, conid de suidib nonn ainmnig- 
ther ses side." "Ciaa gillai" ol Cond fria mac " acailin" uair 
ni acca nech in mnai acht Condla a oenur. 2. Eo recair 
in ben : 

(R.) a Adgladadar mnai n-6ic n-alaind socheneoz7 nad fresci 
bas na sentaid ro cliarus Condla Ruad cotn-gairim do Maig Mell 
inid ri boadag bidsuthain ri cen gol cen mairg inna thir 6 
gabais flaith. 

(R.) Tair lim a Condlai Ruaid muinbric caindeldeirg barr 
bude fordota oas gnuis corcorda bidordan do rigdelbse ma 
chotum-eitis ni chrinfa do delb a h6itiu a haldi co brath brin- 

3. Asberh Cond fria druid, Coran a ainm side, ar ro chua- 
latar uili an ro radi in ben cen co n-acatar : 

(R.) "Not alim a Chorain morchetlaig 1 mordanaig forbond 
dodom-anic as dom moo airli as dom moo cumachtu nith 
nachim thanic o gabsu flaith mu imchomruc delb nemaicside 
cotom-eicnigidar immum mace rochain d'airehelad tre-thoath 
bandu di 2 laim rigdai brectu 3 ban m-berir." 

Do chachain iarom in drui forsin n-guth inna mna connacli 

1 Gloss i. canas chetla. 

2 The first copy in H. 2. 16 has dim. 
8 The other MSS. have brechtaib. 

Pieces for Reading. 135 

ctiala nech guth na mwd ocus conna haccai Condla in mnai 
ond uair sin. 4. In tan tra luide in ben ass re rochetul in 
druad dochorastar ubull do Condlu. Boi Condla co cend mis 
mis 1 cen mir cen dig cen biad. Nir bo fin leis nach tuara aile 
do thomailt acbt a ubull. Ni digbad ni dia ubull each a tomled 
de acht ba ogslan beus, Gabais eolchaire farom inni Condla 
imon mnai atconnairc. Alia ba Ian a mi bai for laim a athar 
im-Maig Archommin inti Condla, conn-aca, cbuci in mnai cefcna 
a n-asbert fris : 

(R) "ISTallsuide 2 saides Condla eter marbu duthainai oc 
idnaidiu eca uathmair. Tot-churethar bii bitbbi at gerat do 
dainib Tetbracb ar-dot-chiat cacb dia i n-dalaib t athardai eter 
du gnathu inmaini." 

5. Amal ro cbuala Cond gutb na mna, asbert fria muintw* : 
"Gairid dam in druid atchiu dbreilced a tenga di indiu." As- 
bert in ben la sodain : 

(R.) "A Cbuind Chetcathaig druidecbt nfs gradaigther ar 
is bee ro soicb for messu ar trag mair. Firien co n-ilmuinteraib 
ilib adarnraib motat-icfa a recht conscera brichta druad tar- 
dechta ar belaib demuin duib dolbthig." 

Ba ingnad tra la Cond ni con taidbred Condla aithesc do 
neocli acht tisad in ben. "In deochaid" ol Cond "fot men- 
main-siu a radas in ben a Condlaif Asbert Condla " Ni 
reid dam secb each caraim mo doini. Rom gab dawo eolchaire 
immon mnai." 6. Ro frecart in ben and-side, co n-epert in so: 
(R.) " Tathut airunsur alaib fri to'md t'eolchaire oadib 

im loing glano condrismais ma roismais sld boadaig. 
(R.) Fil tir n-aill nad bu messu do saigid 

atchiu tairmd in grein n-gil cid cian ricfam rian n- 
(R.) Is ed a tir subatar memnain caich dotimchealla 
ni fil cene£ and namma acht mna ocus ingena." 3 

1 The other MSS. omit the second mis. 

2 Over nail* aide is the gloss /. uasal, 

3 The stops and the division of the verses are according to the MS. 

136 Pieces for Reading. 

7. O tharnic dond ingin a haithesc, foceird Condla iar su- 
diu bedg uadib co m-boi isind noi glano, i. isin churach com- 
thewd commaidi glanta. Atconnarcatar uadib mod nad mod i. 
in fat ro siacht ind radairc a roisc. Bo raiset iarom in muir 
uadib ocus ni aicessa o sin ille ocus ni fes cid dollotar. A 
m-batar for a n-imratib isind airiucht co n-aicet Art clmcu. "Is 
a oenur d'Art indiu " ol Cond "doig ni lil brathair." " Buadfocol 
an ro radis" or Coran "iss ed ainm forbia co brath" Art Oenfer, 
conid de ro len in t-ainm riam o sin immach. 


Eotha Catha Cnucha m so. 

(L. XJ. Facs. p. 41; translated by "W. M. Hennessy, Key. Celt. n. p. 86 
et seq,). 

1 . Dia m-boi Cathair Mor mac Fedelmthi Firurglais maic 
Corioaaic Geltai Gaith irrigi Temrach ocus Cond Cetchathach 
hi Cenandos hi ferand rigdomna, boi drtii amra la Cathair, 
i. Nuadu mac Achi maic Dathi maio Brocain maic Fintain do 
Thuaith Dathi a Bregaib. Boi in clrui oc iarraid feraind il-Lai- 
gnib for Cathair, ar ro fitir co m-bad il-Laignib no beth a chom- 
arbus. Dobeir Cathair a thoga tiri do. Iss ed ferand ro thog 
in drui i. Almu. Bobi ro bo banceli do Nuadait 1 i. Almu ingen 

2. Bo clmmtaiged dun ocan druid and-sin i n-Almain ocus 
ro comled alamu dia sund cor bo asngel uli, ocus co m-bad de-sin 
no beth Almu forri, dia n-ebrad : 

Oengel in dun dremni drend mar no gabad sel Erend 
dond alamain tuc dia thig is de ata Almu ar Almain. 

Bo boi ben Nuadat i. Almu oc iarraid a anma do bith forsin 
cnuc ocus tu cad di-si ind ascid sin, i. a ainm do bith forsin 
chnuc, ar is inti ro Sidnacht iar tain, dia n-ebrad. 

Almu rop alaind in ben hen Nuadat moir maic Aiched 
ro cuinnig ba fir in dal a ainm for in cnuc comlan. 

1 In the facsimile Nu&dhait. 

Pieces for Reading. 137 

3. Boi mac sainemail oc Nuadait i. Tadg mac Nuadat. 
Rairiu ingen Duind Duma a bancheli side. Drui amra dana 
Tadg. Tanic bas do Nuadait ocus ro acaib a dun &mal ro 
boi oc a mac, ocus iss e Tadg ba drui do Chathair dar 6si a 
athar. Bert Bairiu in gin do Thadg i. Murni Muncaim a ainm. 
Ho as gnoe moir in n-ingin i sin co m-bitis maic rig ocus ro- 
flatlia na Erend oc a tochra. Boi dana Cummaiil mac Trenm6ir 
rigfennid hJZrend fri laim Cuind. Boi side dana cumma chaich 
oc iarraid na ingine. Dobreth Nuado era fair 1 ar ro fitir co 
m-bad tremit no biad scarad do fri Almain. Inund mathair 
do Ch^mall ocus d'athair Cuind, i. do Fedelmid Rechtfmar. Tic 
tra Cttmali 2 ocus berid ar ecin Murni for aithed leis ar ni thucad 
do chena hi. 

4. Tic Tadg co Cond ocus innisid do a sarugud do Clmmall, 
ocus gabais fri grisad Cuind ocus oc a imdercad. Eaidid Cond 
techta co Cimall ocus asbert fris Eriu d'acbail n6 sl ingen do 
thabairt do Thadg. Asbert Cumoll na tibred acht is cac/i ni 
doberad ocus ni bad si in ben. Eaidis Cond a amsaig ocus 
Urgrend mac Lugdach Cuirr ri Luagni, ocus Dairi Derc mac 
Echach ocus Aed a mac (is fris-side atberthe Goll far tain) do 
saigid Cwwmaill. 

5. Tinolaid Cwmall a socraiti chucu ocus doberar catli 
Cnuclia etorro ocus marbtair Oimmall and ocus curthir ar a 
muntiri. Dofuit C^mall la Goll mac Morna. Gonais Luchet 
Goll ina rose cor mill a suil conid de rod lil Goll de, conid de 
asbert : 

Aed ba ainm do mac Dairi diar gset Luchet co n-ani 
ro gset in laigni trom airi con rate fris Goll. 

Marbais Goll Luchet. Is de-sin dan ro boi fich bunaid 
eter maccu Morna occus Find. Da ainm ro batar for Dairi, 
i. Morna ocus Dairi. 

6. Luid Murni iar sin co Cond, ar ro diult a athair di 
ocus nir leic cuci hi, ar ro bo torrach hi, ocus asbert fria mun- 

1 In the facsimile far. 

2 In the facsimile Chwmall. 

138 Pieces for Reading. 

tir a breoad ocus arai nir lam ammudugud fri Cond. Boi boi 
ind ingen oc a iarfaigid do Chmid cinnas dogenad. Asbert 
Cond "Eirg" for se "co Fiacail mac Conchiud co Temraig 
Mairci ocus dentar th'asait and," ar dlrfiur do Chumaft ben 
Fiacla i. Bodball Bendron. Luid Condla gilla Cuind lei dia 
idnacul, co ranic tech Fiacla co Temraig Mairci. Ro ferad 
fselti fri sin n-ingin and-sin ocus ro bo maith arrochtain and. 
Ro hasaited ind ingen iar tain ocus loert mac ocus dobreta 
Demni d'anmum do. 

7. Ailur in mac iar tain leo cor bo tualaing fogla do 
denom for cacA n-sen rop escarait do. Fuacraid dawa cath no 
comrac oenfir for Tadg no laneraic a athar do thabairt do. 
Asbert Tadg co tibred breith do ind. Rucad in bret ocus is si 
in brefch rucad do, i. Almu &mal ro boi do lecun do ar dilsi 
ocus Tadg dia facbail. Doronad amlaid ro facaib Tadg Al- 
main do Find ocus tanic co Tuaitli Dathi co a ferand duthaig 
fesin ocus ro aitreb i Cnuc Rein frisi raiter Tulacb Taidg in- 
diu, ar is uad-soni raiter Tulach Taidg fria, o sin co sudi ; 
conid de-sin asbert in so : 

Cuinchis Find for Tadg na tor i Cwmall m6r do marbod 
catli caw chardi do cacA 1 dail no comrac oenfir d'fagbail. 
Tadg uair nir tualaing catha i n-agid na ardflatha 
ro facaib 2 leis ba loor do mar ro boi uli Almo. 

8. Docoid Find i n-Almain iar tain ocus ro aittreb inti 
ocus is si ro bo dun arus bunaid do cein ro bo beo. Doroni 
Find ocus Groll sid iar tain ocus doratad eric a athar o claind 
Morna do Find, ocus batar co sidamail noco tarla etorro i 
Temair Ltiacra imman muic Slanga ocus im Banb Sinna mac 
Mailenaig do marbad, dia n-ebrad : 

Ar sin doronsatar sid Find ocus Goll commeit gnim 

co torchair Banb Sinna de mon muic hi Temair Luacrse. 

1 Hennessy can. 

2 Facsimile ro fac. 

■ Pieces for Reading. 139 


Fragment from the Irish Version of the Historia 
Britonum of Nennius (L. U. Facs. p. 3). 

Grilla Caemgin, who died in 1072, is the reputed author of 
this version. See O'Curry On the Manners, &c. n. 222. 

The British king Guorthigern having been cursed for an 
offence by the clergy, takes counsel Avith the Druids as to 
how he may build a fortress to defend him from his foes the 
Saxons. A suitable site is found, but the building materials 
collected each day vanish each night, and it is impossible to 
raise a firm structure. The Druids declare that the build- 
ing must be cemented with the blood of a child without 
father. Such a miraculous child is found. The boy is told 
by the king what he is threatened with, and puts the pretended 
wisdom of the Druids to the test. Here begins the fragment. 
(The Irish version of the Hist. Brit, has been published at 
length in the Publications of the Irish Archaeological Society 
by Dr Todd from a later MS., the readings of this fragment 
being given in the notes, 1848.) 

1. " Acht chena" ol se "a ri failsigfit-sea firinne duit-siu, 
ocus iarfaigim dona druidib ar thus cid ata i foluch fond erlar 
sa inar fiadnaise." Ho raidset na drtiid "ISTochon etammar" ol 
siat. "Ro fetar-sa" ol se. "Ata loch usci and. Fegtar ocus 
claiter." Ho claided ocus frith in loch and. " A fathe ind rig" 
ol in mac, "abraid cid ata immedon ind locha." "Ni etamar" 
or siat. "Bo fetar-sa" ol se, "atat da clarchiste mora and, in- 
agid tagid ocus tucthar as." Ocus tucad as. "A druide" ol 
in mac, " abraid cid ata etir na clarlestraib tit." Ocus ni eta- 
tar. "Bo fetar-sa" ol se "ata seolbrat and ocus tuctar as." 
Ocus frith in seol timmarcte etir na da ehlarchiste. 2. " Abraid 
a eolcho" ol in mac, "cid ata immedon ind etaig lit." Ocus 
ni ro recratar, ar ni ro tucsatar. " Atat da crtiim and" ol se, 

140 Pieces for Heading. 

".i. cruim derg ocus cruim gel. Scailter in t-etach." Ro scailed 
in seolbrat. Ho batar na di chruim ina cotlud and. Ho raid 
in mac : " Fegaid-si in-dignet innosse na biasta." Atraracht 
each dib co araile co rabe ceclitar de ic sroiniud araile ocus co 
rabatar ic imletrad ocus ic imithi ocus no innarbad in chruim 
dib araile co med6n in t-iuil ocus in fecht n-aill co a imel. 
Dor6nsat fa thri fon innasin. In chruim ruad tra ba fand ar 
thus, ocus ro innarbad co himel ind etaig. In chruim tait- 
nemach immorro ba fand fo deoid ocus ro teich isin loch ocus 
ro tinastar in seol fo chetoir. 

3. Ho iarfaig in mac dona druidib : "Innisid" ar se, "cid 
follsiges in t-ingnad so." " Ni etarnar" ar siat. " Dogen-sa" ar 
in mac " a follsigud dond rig. Is e in loch flathius in domuin 
uile. Is e in seol do lathiusa a ri. Is iat na da chruim na 
da nert .i. do nert-su co m-Bretnaib ocus nert Saxan. Do 
nert-su in chruim ruad, is i ro innarbad ar thus don flathius. 
Nert Sachsan immorro in cruim gel ro gab in seol uile acht 
bee .i. ro gab inis Bretan acht bee. Coron innarba nert Bretan 
fo deoid iat. Tu-su immorro a ri Bretan eirg asin dun sa, ar 
ni chaemais a chumtac ocus sir innis Bretan ocus fogeba do 
dun fadein." 4. Bo raid in ri : " Cia do chomainm-so 1 " ol se. 
Eo recair in gilla : "Ambrois" ol se "mo ainm-se." Is e sein 
in t-Ambrois Gleotic ri Bretan. "Can do cen^^" ol in ri. 
"Consul romanach m'athair-se" ol se, "ocus bid he so mo 
dun." Ro leic Gorthigernd in dun do Ambrois ocus rige 
iarthair inse Bretan uile ocus tanic cona druidib co tuascert 
inse Bretan, i. cosin ferand dianid ainm Gunnis ocus ro chuni- 
taig dtin and i. Cser Gorthigernd. 

Pieces for Reading. 141 


Do cheli De no bi clerech reclesa (LBr. Facs. p. 26 l b ). 

Dia m-bam fo mamm clerchechta is nasal in bes 

athaigem in noebeclcm da cec^ trath 1 do gres. 

In tan clomar in clocan ni iur&il in bes 2 

tocbam cride solma 3 sm&s telcem gnusi ses 4 . 

Canam ipater ocus gloir each tairle 5 trist (.i. co lar) 5 

s6nam bruinne ocus gnuis airrde cruchi 6 Crist. 

7 Arroisam ind eclats slechtam co bo tri 8 

nis fillem glun imama 9 i n-domnaigib 10 De bii. 

Celebram is cuindrigiumm 11 cen lobra cen len 

sruitb in fer adgladamar coimdiu nime nel. 10 

Figlem legem irnaigtiu cech meit 12 a neirt 

feib nunreafeaglat 13 (?) ina gloir co teirt. 

Teit cech gradh ria chomadus feib dobeba coir 

&mal ainmnigter do each otha teirt co noin. 

In t-oes graid don ernaigthi don oiffrind co cert 15 

oes legind do forcetul feib rotnai 14 a nert. 

In 15 ocaes don erlataid feib ronta a tli 16 

ar is diles do di&bul in 17 corp na deni ni. 

Lubair 18 don oes anecnaid do rer 19 clerig 20 chaid 

soethar ecnadu na ghin ssethar buirb na laim. 20 

Celebrad cech entratha 21 la cech n-ord dogniam 

tri slcchtain 22 ria celebrad a tri inna diaid. 

Tua ocus dichratu rtjthince 23 cen len 24 

cen fodord cen imchomairb dlegar da cech oen. 

A British Museum MS. Additional 30,512, fol. 20 b , gives the following 

I in each trath. 2 in cis. 3 solam. 4 sis. 
5 nachar tairli. 6 chruichi. 7 mar ro hiss am inn ecclaiss. 
8 thri. 9 ni fillem gluine namma. 10 indomhnach. 

II cuinrigein. 12 each immeit. 13 feib na ree fegha lat. 
14 ata. I5 indocbad. 16 ind oibad dond humalldit : feib rotha a elf. 
17 without in. 18 ubar. 19 reir. 29 clerech. 21 cen-. 
22 iii figli. 23 raithinchi. 24 chle'n. 



a (asp.) particle of the voca- 

a (asp.) his (M. N.). 

a her (P.). 

a, a n- their (plur.). 

a, a n-, an who ; conj. as. 

a, ass out of; ass, assa. 

Abisolbn Absolon. 

Abracham Abraham. 

abraid, apar from epiur, epur. 

aca, acca, accai, acatdr, acas- 
tar from adciu. 

ro dcaib from fdcbaim. 

acailli see adglddur. 

acker Latin acer. 

AchiTV, 1, Aiched 2. 

acht conj. except, Latin nisi ; 
but ; acht chena however. 

adaig F. night. 

adamra wonderful. 

adciu, adchiu, atchiu I see ; 
adciam, aicet ; accai, acca, 
aca, acatdr; accara, faccara, 
atchithera ; acastar ; aicessa. 

adglddur dep. I address, speak 

with anyone ; adgladadar, 
adgladamar, atagegallarsa, 
atagegalldathar ; Act. aca- 

adib from am I am. 

adnacim I bury; ro adnacht. 

Aed mac JDdiri IV, 4, 5. 

ael lime. 

den, oen one (of all genders). 

cerbarthar from asbiur. 

des f 6es M. age, collectively 
the people; oes legind the 
readers (fer legind lector). 

hcesi s. esi. 

dg battle I, 15. 

aged face; i n-agid with gen. 

dgor dep. I fear. 

di s. indala, ceclitar. 

aicessa, aicet from adciu. 

aimed N. nature ; iar n- 

aidche F. night. 

aigidecht F. hospitality. 

dil agreeable ; ?ii dil I, 39 a . 

aile, N. aill Latin alius. 



ailim I rear ; ailtir. 

ainm N. name ; anma, d'an- 

mum, da ainm. 
ainmnigim I name ; ainmnig- 

ter VI, 14 read ainmnigther. 
air, ar prep, before, for ; airi 

therefore ; airun III, 6 1 
air j ar conj. for. 
airchelad III, 3, cf. arcelim 

aufero Sg. 9 a , arachela vel 

dogaitha Gloss on quae frus- 

tretur mentes eorum Ml. 

31 a ; airchellad raptus Z 2 

airchissim I have mercy; airch- 

issi parcit Wb. 4 C j airchis. 
airde K. sign ; airrde VI. 6. 
airecht M. assembly. 
airgarim I forbid ; mam a^r- 

airitiu F. reception. 

ai'rfe F. counsel. 

airunsur III, 6. 

a^£ place. 

aithed escape, elopement ; for 

aithesc "N. answer. 
aittrebaim I dwell; ro aittreb, 

dlaib III, 6, cf. grian alaib 

(i. alaind) a delightful sun 

Fel. Sep. 3. 
alaile Latin alius. 
alaind lovely. 
alamu IV, 2, Alaunl Latin 

alumen ; dond alarnain. 

aide, dilde F. beauty. 

dlim I beg. 

Almu ingen Becain IV, 1. 

Almo, Almu now the hill of 

Allen, near Newbridge, Co. 

Kildare, Hennessy : in Al- 

am I am ; at, is, as (as n-isel 

I, 31), adlb, it. 
amail, amal prep, and conj. 

Amhrois Ambrosius, a name 

of the well-known prophet 

and magician Merlin, Cymr. 

Merddin Embrys, according 

to Nennius identical with 

a king Ambrois Gleotic, 

Cymr. Embrys Guletic. 
amlaid, amlid thus ; is amlid 

it is so, that... 
amra wonderful, famous. 
amsach from amos satellites, 

mercenary; a amsaig his 

soldiers IV, 4. 
an pron. rel. see a, a n-. 
and there, here, Grk. 4V0a; 

and-side, and-sin Grk. kv- 

dne F. splendour, delicise. 
dne PL divitise; donaib dnib. 
anecnaid unwise. 
unetargnaid wondrous. 
ani Latin id quod. 
anirlatu disobedience; anirla- 

anirlithe disobedient. 



apar from epiur, epur. 
ar, or, ol Latin inquit. 
ar, air prep, before, for; airi ; 

ar sin IV, 8 for iar sin. 
ar, air conj. for. 
ara n-, ar a n- conj. that, 

in order that ; ar na that 

ar n- our. 
dr defeat. 

arai conj. however. 
araile Latin alius. 
aram F. number. 
Archommin see mag. 
drd high ; ard-Jlaith. 
ar-dot-chiat III, 4, cf. nim air- 

cecha " thou shalt not see 

me" Bev. Celt. II p. 490. 
are M. temple (of head), im du 

da are I, 50. 
arna conj. that not. 
Art Oenfer Arturus Unicus 

(O'Flaherty Ogyg. p. 314). 
arus dwelling IV, 8. 
as from am. 

dsaim I grow ; ro as IY, 3. 
asait delivery, parturitio ; ro 

hasaited she was delivered 

IY, 6. 
asbiur I say ; arna erbarat, 

wrbarthar; asbert, asrubar- 

ascid F. request IY, 2. 
ass out of, forth, a, ass. 
at from am. 
aid, atb see attoo. 
I. G. 

atlerthe from epiur, 

atchiu see adciu. 

atconnairc conspexit ; atcon- 

athaigim I visit; athaigem 

VI, 2. 
athair M. father ; athar. 
atharda patrius, subst. patria 

III, 7. 
atraracht surrexit. 
attluchur with and without 

6mofe gratias ago ; attlugud 

attoo, ato I am ; &£o\ 


bachal M. "slave," cf. &ac/*- 

£acA famulus. 
baile M. place, town. 
bdigid, bdegul M. danger ; 6a?'- 

bairgen F. bread ; bairgin. 
Banb Sinna IY, 8. 
bancheli F. wife. 
6#,r ?2- your. 
barr M. top, hair. 
bas, bos F. hand ; it bais, bois. 
bds ~N. death. 

bee little, few ; acht bee all but. 
Becan IY, 1. 
bedg leap. 

6eim N. to beat, blow. 
beist F. Latin bestia ; na 

bel M. lip, mouth; beulu, ar 

belaib before, towards. 



belre N. speech. 

ben F. woman ; mnd, mndi, 
mndi n-, ban. 

beo living ; Mi, Mi, M. 

berim I bear, bring, bring 
forth ; berid, bert, berir. 

bes M. custom. 

bethu M. life. 

beus moreover. 

Mad N. nutriment, food. 

bith M. world ; betho. 

bithbeo eternal ; betho, 

biu I am; bi, Mis, i m-biam, 
Mit, dia m-bam, ni bat, ni 
pat; no beth, ni bad, co 
m-bad, ro bad, co m-bitis ; 
to Ma, bith, bid; no Mad; 
boi, bdi, ro bo, cor bo, nir 
bo, nad bu, bd, ba, robe, co 
■rabe, rop, bdtar, co rabatar, 
robtar ; do buith, do bith; 
feib do beba VI, 13? 

do blith from melim. 

bo tri VI, 7 ior/o thri. 

Bodball Bendron Cum all's 
sister IV, 6. 

boadag see buadach. 

boc M. ram. 

bocht poor. 

bochta F. poverty. 

boide see buide. 

bois see bas. 

bole M. bag. 

borb proud, saucy ; buirb. 

brdge M. neck ; bragait. 

brat M. cloak; hi m-brot. 

brdth M. judgment ; brdtha, co 

brdthair M. brother. 
brec pied. 
brec F. lie. 
brectu III, 3 from bric/it, read 

Brega pi. the eastern part of 

Meath ; a Bregaib IV, 1. 
ta flame; whence breoad IV, 

Bretan Briton ; co m-Bretnaib. 
breth F. judgment. 
bricht charm, spell ; brichta. 
brig valor. 
brindach III, 2 1 
Brocan IV, 1. 
bruinne M. breast. 
buadach victorious, lordly ; 

Boadag III, 2, Boadaig 6. 
buadfocol a good word III, 7. 
buaid 1ST. victory, triumph. 
buan everlastiog ; bHana. 
bude, buide yellow. 
buide, boide, F. thanks. 
bunad !N\ origin, family : fich 

bunaid hereditary feud IV, 

5, arus bunaid family seat 

IV, 8. 


each, cech each (adj.). 
each every (subst.) ; cdich. 
cacha how many III, 4. 
caemais from eumaing potest. 



ccer the Cymric form of the 
Irish cathir town; Caer 
Gorthigernd Y, 4. 
ccesta, see cesad. 
cdid holy. 
cdin beautiful. 
cainel III, 2 for cainnel, Latin 

can? whence] 
can for cen. 

canim I sing; fom chain, 
canaSj canam t do chachain; 
cani I, 50 seems to be the 
Latin cane. 
cara M. friend ; carait. 
car aim, I love ; to charus. 
carcar Latin career; isinchar- 

carde F. peace ; can chardi. 
carric stone, rock ; forsnaib 

cath M. battle ; catha. 
cauir from curim. 
ce } cia although. 
cechj each each (adj.). 
cechtar di, cechtar de each of 

cein conj. so long as. 
cele M. socius ; cele De Culdee 

(a monk), do cheli De. 
celebraim Latin celebro, (1) I 
celebrate, (2) I bid farewell; 
celebram, celebrad. 
celim I conceal, I hide; nad eel. 
cen prep, without; cen co n- 
without that. 

Genandos the town of Kells (Co. 

Meath) IY, 1. 
cendsa F. mansuetudo. 
cenel N. kind. 
cendy cenn M. head ; cinn, fort 

chiunn ; tet...di chiunn he 

goes forth I, 41; co cend 

mis to the end of a month, 

tar cenn for. 
cert M. right. 
cesad M. suffering. 
cet- the first; fochet-oir straight- 
cet N. hundred ; Cet-chathach 

see Cond. 
cital N. song ; cetla. 
cetna the first, the same. 
chena adv. besides, else ; acht 

chena however. 
cia 2 who % what 1 
cia conj. although ; cid quam- 

vis sit. 
cian remote. 
cid ? what % 
cid Latin velut I, 49; cid,.. 

cid be it... be it. 
cimbid M. prisoner. 
cinnas ? how ? 
claideb M. sword. 
claidim I dig ; claiter, ro clai- 

eland F. kin, posterity, clan. 
cldr M. table; cldr-chiste flat 

chest ; clar-lestar flat vessel. 
clerchecht clergy, ecclesiastical 

condition ; clerchechta. 



clerech M. Latin clericus. 

clocdn M. bell. 

clock F. stone. 

door dep. I hear ; clomar. 

cMm F. Latin pluma; cluim. 

cnoc M. hill ; forsin chnuc. 

Cnoc Rein IY, 7. 

Cnucha now Castleknock near 

co prep, to, after, Latin ad, is 
used in the formation of ad- 
verbs ; cosin ; cuci, chuci, 

co n- prep, with ; cosnaib. 

co n- that, there (in conclu- 

cbi cuckoo II, 3. 

coim pretiosus. 

cbim dear (?) ; maicc coima I, 
11, om choimmdiu cbima II, 

coima, cf. caomha, nobility O'Cl. 

coimdiu M. the Lord; om 
choimmdiu II, 3. 

coimas (?) benignitas (?) ; Gen. 
cbimsa I, 11. 

coimnactar from conicim I can. 

coimthecht M. to accompany, 

coir just. 

comadus YI, 13, cf. comadas 
conveniens Z. 2 994. 

comainm N. cognomen. 

comairle F. counsel ; comairli. 

comalnaim I fulfil; di comal- 

comarbus M. succession IY, 1. 
combdg F. contention, to con- 
tend ; oc combdig. 
comlaim I rub ; to comled I Y, 2 
comldn full, whole IY, 2. 
commaide III, 7, cf. maide " a 

stick" (Corm. transl. p. 118)? 
commeit of equal weight. 
comrac M. meeting : cam- 

chomracc benevolentia Wb. 

30 b ; comrac benfir duel. 
comtachtmar from cuintyim I 

beg, I demand. 
comthend IY, 7, cf. *'a fewc£ mo 

cAWs est firmum meum cin- 

gulum Z. 2 954. 
con conj. that I, 37, IY, 5, until 

I, 39. 
Conchend IY, 6. 
Cond Cetchathach Quintus Cen- 

timachus 121, rex Hiber- 

niae 177—212 p. Chr. 

O' Flaherty, Ogyg. p. 313; 

Cuind, do Chund. 
condaig from cuingim quaero. 
Condla Rtiad III, 1 et seq. ; a 

condrigim convenio, concurro ; 

cuindrigiumm YI, 9 ; con- 

drismais III, 6. 
congniu cooperor ; congnL 
conid ut sit. 
conna, connach conj. except, so 

that not. 
conscera from coscraim I de- 
stroy, I conquer. 



consul Latin consul. 

cor conj. that, so that ; co ro, 

co rabe, co rabatar. 
Cordn III, 3, 7. 
corcorda purple coloured. 
corcur F. purple. 
corp Latin corpus. 
colcaid Latin culcita, flock 

Cormac Geltai Gdeth IY, 1. 
coscim coerceo; ro cJiosca I, 28. 
cot-gairim III, 2, from con- 

gairim I call. 
cotlud M. to sleep, sleep. 
cotom-eicnigidar from com- 

eicnigim cogo. 
cotum-eitis from con-eitgini, com- 

eitgim indulgeo. 
crinaim I vanish. 
(7ns£ Christ. 
crock F. cross; cruchi. 
crochad to crucify ; crochlha. 
cros Latin crux I, 50. 
cruim F. worm. 
cuala from clunim I hear ; cz£- 

cucij chuci, clmcu from co prep. 

cuil corner, angle. 
cuinchis IY, 7 from cuintgim 

I beg, I demand (with /or). 
cuindrech castigatio. 
cuindrigium see condrigim. 
cuingim I beg, demand ; con- 

daig, cuinnig, 
culatha I, 50 "the back parts of 

the head" (Stokes Ir. Glos. p. 

cuniachte !N\ might, cumacktu, 

Cumall mac Trenmoir Finn's 
father, IY, 3 et seq., some- 
times written Cummall. 

cumma manner; cumma chdich 
IY, 3. 

cumsanad M. to rest, rest. 

cumtaigim I* build ; ro chum- 
taig, rochumtaiged ; inf. 
cumtac for cumtach Y, 3. 

curach boat. 

curim, cuirim I put; cauir I, 
50 1 do chorastar III, 4, cwr- 

cutrummus M. similarity. 


-d- infixed pronoun. 

da infixed pronoun I, 31. 

da for do YI, 2, 24. 

da F. d£ JST. dd n- two. 

dad I, 11, from tdu. 

ddinib from duine. 

Ddiri Derc father of Aed IY, 

4 ; do mac Ddiri 5, cf. 

ddl F. assembly; bafir in ddl 

I Y, 2 ; do each ddil IY, 7 ; 

in-ddlaib III, 4. 
dam see do. 
dano y dana conj. also. 
dan M. gift ; ddnu. 
dar see tor. 
co n-ddrbais I, 48, cf. tadbat 



demonstrat ; do-ad-badarde- 

Bathe IV, 1, cf. Tuath JDathi. 

de, di prep, of, Latin de ; de 
thence ; desin. 

de after the comparative, the 
Latin eo. 

de see cechtar. 

deacht F. Godhead. 

dead end ; fo deoid at last Y, 2 ; 
inna diaid after it YI, 2. 

debaid F. dispute III, 1. 

debrath n-om choimmdiu coima 
II, 3 perhaps a form of oath, 
cf. Patrick's oath dar mo 
debrotk, etymologically ex- 
plained by dar mo dia m- 
brdtha(Stokes Three Middle- 
Irish Horn. p. 26). 

dechur "N. difference. 

degnim for deg-gnim, deg- good. 

delb F. form; delbce III, 2. 

Demni IY, 6, one of Finn's 

demon M. demon ; demuin. 

denim, I make, do ; na deni, 
denidj dentar ; inf. denom, 
denam, denmo. 

deoch F. to drink, drink ; cen 
dig III, 4. 

deochad veni ; deochaid III, 5, 

cf. dodeochad. 
fo deoid Y, 2 see dead, 
derg red. 

dermanammar I, 41 from der- 
moiniur I forget. 

derfiur for derbfiur F. sceur 

germaine IY, 6. 
desimrecht example ; desim- 

desta for testa deest I, 36. 
di, de prep, of, Latin de ; dinab, 

dit, dib, di. 
di see do. 
di see da. 

dia M. God ; dee, de. 
dia day ; each dia I, 50. 
efc see do. 

dia n- wherefore, conj. as, if. 
diabul M. diabolus. 
dianid cui est. 
diade godlike ; diadi. 
inna diaid YI, 22, see dead, 
dichra fervent. 
dichratu YI, 23. 
dig see deoch. 

digal revenge ; diglae I, 33. 
digbaim I diminish, I lessen; 

digni from dogniu I do, make. 
cfo7es proprius YI, 18. 
cfa7se F. property ; ar dilsi IY, 

<£mo conj. namely, Latin ergo, 

dindgna hill; <fe dindgnaib 

II, 3. 
dithrub desertum I, 42. 
diultaim I deny, refuse; to 

diittt IY, 6, inf. diltud ne- 

gatioZ. 2 991. 
do, du thy. 



do, du prep, to, after; dative and 
infinitive particle; don,dond, 
donaib, dona; dam, dom (as 
dom moo airli III, 3 1), dun, 
dait, duit, d6, di, dia, dia n-. 

do verbal particle; do cha- 
chain III, 3 ; do chorastar 
III, 4 ; do-d-esta I, 36 1 

dobiur, tabur, doberim I give, 
I take ; dobir, dobeir ; do- 
bertis ; dobert ; doberad ; do- 
berar ; dobreta ; dobreth. 

docoid, dochbid perl lie went ; 

dochum prep, to; ina dochum, 
na dochum, to him III, 1. 

dodcaid poor, unfortunate II, 
4, cf. dothchaid poor (Corm. 
Transl. p. 51, 55) ; dodcad 
infelicitasWb. 2b (Z. 2 647). 

dodeockad I came, am come ; 2 
sg. dodeocoad, 3 dodechuid. 

dod-iarmorat for do-d-iarm : fo- 
ratad I, 41, past pass, with 
infixed pronoun, to put after. 

dodom-anic III, 3, from tdnac. 

dodom-chela III, 6, read do-d- 
imchela from timchelaim I 
surround, perambulate. 

dofuit from tuitim. 

dogdithim illudo, pellicio. 

dogniu I do, make; dogni, 
digni, dogniam, dignet ; du- 
rigni ; dog en ; dogenad; do- 

doig verisimilis III, 7 (doig). 

ddinacht E. human nature. 

doini see duine. 

dolbthach gen. dolbthig III, 5, 

from dolbud figmentum Wb. 

4 C (Z. 2 352), cf. doilbtheach, 

sorcerer O'B,. 
dolecim, dollecim I leave, re- 
sign, release, throw; do- 

reilced III, 5. 
doluid, dolluid he went; <f#Z- 

doluigim remitto. 
domelim, toimlim I consume ; 

domelom III, 1. 
dom-farcai II, 2 me cingit 

domnach Sunday, i n-domnai- 

gib VI, 8. 
domun M. world ; domuin. 
domunde worldly. 
Dond Duma IV, 3. 
dforatf he gave ; doratad. 
doreg I shall go ; dorriga. 
doreilced from dolecim. 
dorolgetha I, 4, from doluigim. 
doroni he made; dorbnsat ; do- 

ronsatar, doronad. 
dosaidi-siu sedes I, 48. 
doss thicket II, 3. 
dotheit, dotet it, venit. 
dremne rage ; dremni drend 

IV, 2 ("of battle renown," 

drend quarrel, battle IV, 2. 
drochgnim M. ill- deed ; droch- 




drill M. druid, magus ; drudd, 
druid, a druide, dona drui- 

druid edit F. sorcery III, 5. 

du, do thy. 

dub, black; duib. 

ducuitig juravit I, 45. 

Duid David. 

duine, dune M. person ; pi. 
doini, do ddinib. 

dul inf. to go. 

dun N. stronghold, arx. 

durairngred I, 45 from do-air- 
con-gairm, taimgrim I pro- 

durigni from dogniu. 

dus ( = do jius ad sciendum) 
used to introduce an indirect 

duthaig belonging, own IV, 7. 

duthain transient; et(er)marbu 
duthainai III, 4, cf. suthain 


e he ; is Ae, z'sse. 

ebrad from epwr. 

<?c death ; <?ca. 

ecen F. necessity ; ar ecin. 

echtra, ectra expedition (OT>. 

Gr. 119), adventures (0'C. 

Mat. 589). 
eclais, ceclis Latin ecclesia. 
ecnaid wise; ecnaduVI, 20. 
ed it ; is hed, ised, issed (often 


Effraim Ephraim I* 48. 

eirgim I arise, stand up ; eirg. 

en M. bird. 

en for aen, den VI, 21. 

Eocho gen. Echach IV, 4. 

eofe experienced ; a Zolcho. 

eolchaire grief. 

ejpW I say; epert, apar, at- 

b(er)the, ebrad; inf. epert 
era " refusal" IV, 3. 
^Tmc, eric F. indemnity, com- 
pensation for murder, Old 

H. G. weragelt IV, 7, 8. 
JSVw Ireland ; Erend. 
erldr M. floor, pavimentum 

fond erlar V, 1. 
erlatu M. obedience ; don erla-^ 

taid VI, 17; cf. irlithe. 
ernaigthe F. prayer ; don er- 

naigthi VI, 1 5 ; irnaigtiu 1 1 . 
escare M. enemy ; escarait IV, 

<sfor esi after, behind IV, 3 ; 

tar hcesi I, 41 ; tar hesi for I, 

etach "N. cloth, dress; etaig, i 

nochon etammar seefetar. 
etir y eter prep, between, under; 


fa thri thrice, from/o. 

fdcbaim I leave, I give up, 
I abandon ; ro facaib, ro 
dcalb; inf. dofacbail,d'dcbdil. 



fadein self. 
fadeissin, fadesin self. 
fcelte F. joy, welcome. 
fagbail see fogbaim. 
fdidim I send ; fdidid, fdidis. 
failsigfit i rom foillsigim. 
/air end F. crowd, people ; don 

fairggce ocean II, 1. 
faith prophet, wise man ; a 

fdl hedge, enclosure II, 2. 
fand weak. 
far n- your. 

fat length, extent III, 7. 
fecht 1ST. time (in sense of turn) ; 

infecht n- ailL 
Fedelmid Firurglas the father 

of Cathair Mor ; Fedelmthi 

IY, 1. 
Fedelmid Rechtmar Fedlimius 

Legifer 129, rex Hibernise 

164—174 p. Chr. (O'Fl. 

Ogyg. p. 306). 
fegaim I see ; fegha, fegaid f 

feib how. 
fein self; do charaitfen thine 

own friends I, 49. 
fer M. man ; fir. 
feraim fselti I give welcome ; 

ferand M. land ; feraind. 
ferr better ; ferr de. 
fers Latin versus ; hi fer 8 I, 8. 
fes from fetar. 

fesin self. 

fetar I know; Jltir, noclton 

etammar, ni etatar ; fes. 
Fiacail mac Conchind ; Fiacla. 
fiadnaise presence ; inar fiad- 

naise before us. 
fich feud IY, 5. 
fldbaid forest, jidbaidce II, 2. 
fig ell, figil from Latin vigil ia 

i.e. frithaire (watch) indi- 
cates certain prayers, cf. 

Stokes, Conn. Transl. p. 77 ; 

and figlem 1 pi. imperat. 

let us watch or let us say 

vigils YI, 11. 
fit it is. 
fillim I bend (the knee) ; nis 

fittiud flexio. 
find white. 

finnaim I find ; ro finnatar. 
Fintan IY, 1. 
fir true. 

firien just III, 5. 
firinne F. truth. 
Firurglas see Fedelmid. 
flu just, fit. 

fledF. feast ; fleda III, 1. 
filaith F. lordship; ardflailh, 

rofiaith, flatha. 
flathius M. lordship; do la- 

fo prep, under ; fon, fond; 

fot ; fo chetoir forthwith. 
fochanim succino; fom chain 

II, 2. 



focherdaim I put, throw ; fo- 
ceird III, 7 ; focertar I, 50. 

fochaid F. suffering; dinab 

focol word III, 7. 

fodaraithmine I, 31 ? readybr- 

fodord murmuratio VI, 24. 

yb^ F. spoliatio IY, 7. 

fogbaim I find ; fogeba. 

fognm I serve ; fognither, fo- 

foillsigim I show; follsiges, 
failsigfit, foillsigthir ; inf. 

folach custodia, cover or con- 
cealment (Stokes, Corm. 
Trans, p. 77) ; ifoluch V, 1. 

folt hair. 

for prep, upon ; for sin, for- 
snaib; foir,forri, form, fort; 
for aithed "in elopement" 
IY, 3 Hennessy. 

for, or, ol inquit. 

for-aith-muiniur I am mindful, 
remember ; foraithmenair 
I, 5, cf. fodaraithmine I, 31. 

ybr&m III, 7 fut. (cf. § 310) 
from forbenim perficio, for- 
fenar consummatur, forbe 
completion, Grk. StareXeVet. 

forbond III, 3 perhaps 
O'lteilry's forbann procla- 
mation of an edict ? 

forbrissim opprimo ; fortan- 
bristis I, 7. 

for-canim, -chanim, -chun I 

teach ; forcain. 
forcetal, forcital ~N. teaching ; 

doforcitul VI, 16, infinitive 

forchluinim I hear ; forchluin- 

forchomnacuir evenit ; ybr- 

chuimsed (cf. § 347). 
fordotd III, 2 probably for 

for-dot-td is upon thee. 
foroid... II, 3? 
fortacht help ; fortachtae. 
fortachtaigim I help ; dep.jfcr- 

fotha M. cause. 
frecndarcus M. presence. 
freer aim I answer; n? recair, 

ro frecart, ro recratar. 
fresciu I wait ; fresci III, 2. 
t /K prep, towards, against ; 

frisin n-, frim, friss, frib; 

fria, via; frisi IY, 7 for 

frisa ; frisside say to anyone, 

separate from anyone, equal 

with anyone, and so on. 
frith is found. 
frithgnom M. preparation ; can 

rithgnom III, 1. 
fuacraim I announce ; fua- 

fufuasnaim compound of fua~ 

snaim I rave ; fufuasna II, 1 . 
furail VI, 3 O'Reilly's fordil 

excess, superfluity, cf. erail 

i. imforcraid O'Dav. erain. 




gabim I take, seize ; gaib, gal- 
bid ; nacliin rogba I, 27 ; to 
gabjgabsu, gabais, no gabad; 
inf. do gabdil; gabaisfri gri- 
sad began to instigate IV, 4. 

gcet from gonaim. 

gdith, gdeth F. wind. 

#a£ar N. disease. 

garim I call ; gairid. 

gel white ; oengel all white ; 

gerat III, 4, cf. gerait i. mac 
bee, no beodha "lively" no glic 
(skilful) no anrud (nomen 
secundi gradus poetarum 
Corm. O'Dav.) but trans- 
lated " champion" by Stokes 
Fel. Prol. 90. 

gilla M. servant ; a gillai. 

gin M. mouth. 

giuil II, 4 from glenim ad- 

glain (or glan) glass; glano 
III, 6. 

glan clean. 

glanla III, 7 from glanaim I 

#£ass green. 

Gleotic for Cymric guletic, later 
gwledic princeps, see Am- 

gle clear. 

gl6ir Latin gloria. 

glun N. knee. 

gndth known. 

gniim I do ; gniter. 

gnim M. to do, deed; gnime, 

assa gnimaib. 
gnoe beautiful IV, 3, cf. Corm. 

Transl. p. 86. 
gnicis F. face ; gnuis, gnusi. 
goiste noose. 
gol shout. 

gonaim I kill; gonais; to gmt. 
Gorthigernd Vortigern, king of 

Britain, who received the 

Saxons under Hengist and 

Horsa about A. d. 447. 
grdd N. grade, rank I, 28, 52 ; 

oes graid VI, 15. 
grddaigim I love, with nis 

gradaigtheT III, 5. 
gres memoria, do gres always. 
grian F. sun ; tar sin grein. 
grisad drive on, stimulate IV, 

Gunnis a district in the north 

of Britain V, 4. 
guth M. voice. 

For words having li as initial 
sound see the same without 
the h. 

hirubin Cherubim ; for hirubi- 
naib I, 48. 

i determinative particle, in n~ 

ingin i sin this maiden. 
i. contraction for idon namely. 



% hi she IY, 3, 6; ace. IY, 5. 

i n- 9 hi n- prep, in ; isin, indi, 
inti, im, inar, it. 

iar n- prep, after; iarna, iar 
sin, iar sudiu thereupon; 
iar tain later. 

iarfaigim I ask (with do) ; ro 
iarfaig ; inf. iarfaigid. 

iarom, iarum adv. thereupon. 

iarraid seek, ask. 

iarthar west, the western part; 

iat they. 

ic prep, at Y, 2, see oc. 

ice to heal, cure. 

idal M. Latin idolum ; idil I, 

idnacul no doubt infinitive o£ 
adnaicim (originally I de- 
liver, then I bury) ; dia id- 
nacul to escort "her" IY, 
6 Hennessy. 

idnaide expectation ; oc idnai- 
diu III, 4. 

il much ; co n-ilmuinteraib ilib 
III, 5 ; il-belre. 

ille adv. hue ; sin itte thence, 
hither III, 7. 

im see imm. 

imberim I carry about ; imbir 
I, 51. 

imchomairb YI, 24, cf. comh- 
airp " emulation' ' O'Reil- 
ly, comairb i. cominnairbe 

imchomarc salutation I, 21. 

imchomrac coming together, 
battle ; mu imchomruc III, 

imdercad reproach, to reproach 
III, 3. 

imel, imbel border. 

imithe to devour one another ; 
ic imithi Y, 2, cf. longud no 
ithi, consuming or eating 
Ml. 118. 

imletrad cutting one another, 
ic imletrad Y, 2 ; cf. letrad 
hacking, cutting Corm. 
Transl. p. 105. 

imm, im prep, about ; imman, 
immon, imon, mon; imbe, 
immib ; immum, imma ; in 
composition im- often indi- 
cates reciprocity. 

immach adv. out, forth ; osin 
immach thenceforward. 

immaig adv. without. 

immaille together I, 29. 

immedon adv. in the midst, 
midway between. 

im(morro) conj. but. 

immun M. hymnus. 

imned "N. oppression. 

imorbus Old Irish immormus 
M. scandalum III, 1. 

imrddiud M. counsel; for a n- 
imrdtib III, 7. 

imthanu change I, 41. 

in interrogative particle III, 

in-dignet Y, 2 for a n-dignet. 



in, ind, in t- the § 171. 

in sin ovtos ; in so roSe. 

inagid tagid Y, 1, cf. aigh i. 
eirigh ut est aigh taig t, iair 
doridhis L eirigh go Cormac 
ocus lair doridhisi uadh 
(aigh viz. arise up e.g. aigh 
taig, viz. return, viz. go 
to Cormac and come back 
from Mm) ; O'Dav. cf. also 
" tagaidh" come ye on, ad- 
vance (O'Reilly). 

ind inaim so at this time I, 

indala n-di one of two I, 

indeb N". gain I, 18 ; 32. 

indiu adv. to-day. 

indlinech II, 2, super me li- 
bello interscripto (Stokes). 

indlat wash ; oc indlut I, 51. 

indocbdl, inducbdl F. fame; in- 

ingin F. maiden, daughter; 
ingine, ingin, ingena. 

ingnad wondrous, wonder. 

inid III, 2 ubi est, cf. § 387. 

inis, innis F. island ; inse. 

inmain dear ; inmaini III, 4. 

inna in suo III, 2. 

inna ubi non III, 1. 

innarbenim pello, repello; no 
innarbad, coron innarba V, 
2, 3 ; innarbar (read innar- 
banar) I, 22, ro innarbad Y, 

innas M. condition, manner; 
fon innasin in this way, 

inni see inti. 

innisim I say; innisid. 

innocht adv. to-night. 

innosse adv. now V, 2. 

insin, inso see m swz, m so, 

inti (article with the determi- 
native i) the, the well-known, 
inti Condla III, 4, ace. inni 
Condla ibid. 

inund pron. idem, eadem, idem 
IY, 3. 

ires, hiress F. faith. 

irlithe obedient. 

imaigtiu YI, 11, see emaigthe. 

Irusalem Jerusalem I, 40. 

is and YI, 9. 

isel low I, 31. 

Isu Jesus. 

itaam III, 1 from itdu § 386. 


la prep, by, with, through ; 
lasin, lemm, lim, linn, leind, 
Zeis, lei, leo, leu; lase there- 
by ; ba ingnad la Cond Conn 
was astonished ; la sodain 

Id see laithe. 

labrur dep. I speak ; ce nus 
labratar; inf. labrad. 

laechrad F. the warriors ; 
dond laechraid II, 1. 



in laigni trom IY, 5 "the heavy 

lance" Hennessy. 
laithe, laa, Id N. day; isind 

laithiu I, 41. 
Mm F. hand; Zaim, c?£ laim ; 

for Idim a athar beside his 

father III, 1 ; fri Idim 

Cuind by the side of Conn 

IY, 3. 
lamaim I dare ; nir lam, 
Ian full ; lain, 
lann, lond rapid us, immitis, 

fierce; lainn II, 1. 
Idr M. floor, ground. 
laxa, laxu Latin laxitas see len. 
lebrdn M. libellus. 
lecim, leicim I leave ; to leic ; 

no leicthe ; inf. lecun. 
legim Latin lego ; 1 pi. impe- 

rat. legem YI, 1 1 ; inf. oes 

legind lectores YI, 16. 
len YI, 9, 23, cf. corp-len 

bodily ease Stokes, Fel. Jun. 

22, i. corp sleman no laxu no 

lenim I adhere ; to len; to HI. 
less commodum ; ridm less 

with genitive I need. 
leih N". side. 
libur, lebor M. Latin liber ; 

litir F. litera ; litre, 
lobra F. infirmitas. 
loch M. lake; locha. 
Lochlind Norway II, 1. 
log, luach N. reward. 

Ibid song II, 2. 

loiscim I burn ; loiscther. 

Ion M. merle. 

long F. ship. 

loor enough. 

Mad, Math swiffc. 

Mad a speaking. 

Luagni IY, 4, Luagni Tevi- 

Tach "a sept seated near 

Tara, in the present county 

Meath" Hennessy. 
lubair work YI, 19. 
Luchet IY, 5. 
Lugaid Cott. IY, 4. 
Mid he went ; luide III, 4. 
fo&a the little finger; <fo lutain 



-m suffixed pronoun of the 1 

sg. Ill, 3. 
m' for mo my. 
md conj. if III, 2, 6. 
ma see m6o. 

mac, mace M. son ; maicc. 
mag N". plain ; im-Maig At- 

chommin III, 4 ; J/a^ JH/e^ 

the Elysium of the pagan 

Mailenach, gen. Mailenaig IY, 

mairg woe, cew mairg III, 2. 
maith good, the good. 
maldacht F. maledictio; ma£- 

dachta I, 42. 



mdmm servitus ; fo mamm VI, 

mani conj. if not I, 19, 28 ; 

manid nisi sit I, 38. 
mar conj. as, just as IV, 

2, 7. 
mar, mbr great. 
marb dead ; marbu. 
marbaim I kill ; marbais, 

marbtair ; inf. marbad. 
martir martyrium ; martre I, 

mass beautiful II, 3. 
mathair F. mother. 
mebul F. shame. 
medair "talk, discourse" 

O'Reilly; medair mass II, 

3 parenthetic ; a lovely con- 
medon middle. 
meit greatness; immeit. 
melim I grind ; inf. do blith. 
mell, older meld agreeable. 
menma mind ; menmain. 
menu clear II, 1, 3. 
mer M. finger. 
messu (comparative) worse. 
mi month ; mis. 
millim I spoil, destroy IV, 5. 
mir N. piece, bit. 
mnd, mndi from ben. 
mo, mu my ; m'athair. 
mo, mos soon (before the 

mod M. modus ; mod nad mod 

by and by III, 7. 

moga, moge from mug. 

mon (rnuic) IV, 8 for imon. 

m,oo, moo, mo, mu comparative 
of m6r III, 3. 

mbr, mar great ; mora. 

morchetlach having song (rtior) 
great (cetal) III, 3. 

m6rdd?iach possessing great 
{mbr) art {dan) III, 3. 

Morna or Ddire Derc head of 
the Fenians of Connacht IV, 
4, his son was Aed or Goll 
mac Morna, his descendants 
maic or eland Morna 5, 8. 

motdticfa for mo-dot-icfa mox 
teadibiU III, 5. 

m^, mo my. 

mitcc F. pig ; muic. 

mudugud destruction, to de- 

mug M. slave ; moge, moga. 

muin nape III, 2; cf. i. brdige 
(neck) Corm. Emain ; mui- 
nel collum ; Mun-caim the 

muir N. sea ; mora. 

munter, muinter F. family, 
followers ; munliri, muntir, 

Murni Muncaim Finn's 
mother IV, 3. 


-n, -nn suffixed pronoun of the 
1 pi. I, 7, 27; III, 1. 



na not I, 10 ; IY. 4. 

na (dochum) III, 1 for ina 
inna ; VI, 20. 

nd, na, n6 or; nadfresci has 
na sentaid III, 2 ; ni rots 
chluim na colcaid II, 4 ; fua- 
craid. . . cath . . for Tadg nd 
eraic a athar do thahairt do 
IV, 7. 

nach not; nachin rogba I, 27; 
ndchim thdnic III, 3. 

wdcA adjectival pronoun, any; 
nacA tuara III, 4. 

w&^, 7m<i not (in relative and 
dependent sentences) III, 2, 
6 ; nad eel II, 2 ; in tan nad 
n-acastar et nad forchluinter 
I, 43 ; huare nad n-digni I, 
30 ; mod nad mod see mod 
III, 7. 

nallsuide III, 4 with the gloss 
-£. uasal, it is perhaps 921 
alhuide like alltogw Cod. S. 
Pauli V, 9 ; cf. also all n- 
glaine " a rock of purity" Fel. 
Jan. 6. 

nama M. enemy; namit. 

nammd adv. only ; nanmd I, 

wec/& subst. some one; ni... 
nech no one ; do neoch. 

nel cloud. 

nem K. heaven ; mwze, innim. 

nemaiscide invisible (?) Ill, 

wer£ ET. strength, might; neirt. 

nessam superl. the nearest I, 

ni, ni not ; nir, nir for ni ro ; 

nis III, 5 ; ni con not III, 

ni something, with subsequent 

relative clause id (quod) ; 

each ni all;, 

nothing, ani sin this I, 

-ni augmentative particle of 

the 1 pi. I, 7, 15, 20, 41. 
ni insa [ansa) not hard. 
nith combat III, 3 ; i. guin 

duine (homicidium) Corm. 
no, nu verbal particle (§ 251) ; 

nonn ainmnigther III, 1 ; 

not alim III, 3 ; nob sodrfa- 

si I, 25; nus labr atari, 44; 

no da fortachtaigedar I, 31; 

am(al) nondadl, 11. 
no ship ; isind noi III, 7. 
no or; ait inna hi has nopeccad 

na immorbus III, 1; IV, 

nochon not V, 1. 
noco n- until IV, 8. 
noeb, naeb holy. 
n6n Latin nona (nones) ; co 

nbin VI, 14 (the canonical 

not Latin nota sign ; nota I, 

Nuadu Cathir's druid; Nud- 

dat, do Nuddait IV, 1. 
nurtreafeaglat VI, 12. 




6, Ha prep, from; oa Lochlind 
II, 1 ; ond ; hudin; tiaib, 
uad, oadib, uadib, uaidib; 
om; o sin immach thence- 
forward III, 7 ; o sin itte, o 
sin co sudi from there to 
the present III, 7 ; IY, 7. 

6 conj. since. 

6as, Has prep. over. 

oc, ic prep, at, by ; ocan, occa, 
occo ; oc idnaidiu a waiting 
= exspectans III, 4 ; ato oc 
combdig sum certans I, 37. 

be young; oic ; 6c-aes VI, 17. 

debad F. the young people. 

6chtar, Hachtar the upper part; 
i n-uachtor III, 1. 

ocus, acus conj. and, usually 
represented in these texts 
in the MS. by the Latin et 
or by a contraction (§ 395). 

ben, den one. 

benar singleness; Condla a 
6enur Condla alone III, 1. 

benfer one man; comrac oenfir 
single combat IV, 7; Art 
Oenfer see Art 

bes see des ; oes graid VI, 15> 
legind 16. 

bgslan quite safe III, 4. 

oifrend mass; don oiffrind VI, 

bitiu youth III, 2. 

ol inquit. 

or inquit. 
I. G. 

6r, uar F. hour, time ; ond uair 
sin III, 3 ; fo chet-6ir 
straightway ; h6re, huare, 
uair conj. because. 

ord M. order VI, 21. 

or dan, or dan honour III, 2. 

orgaim, orcaim I kill ; noircthe 
I, 42. 

osailcim, oslaicim I open ; o- 
sailcther I, 22. 

bsin = b sin, see 6. 

otha from VI, 14. 


pater Our Father I, 50; VI, 5. 

peccad M. Latin peccatum ; 
pecthi, pectha. 

popul Latin populus ; popuil. 

precept Latin preceptum, doc- 
trine, to teach. 

predchim praedico, I preach. 


R. III, 2 a frequent contrac- 
tion for retoric. 

radairc sight III, 7. 

rddim, rdidim I say, call (with 
fri) ; ro rddi, radas ; ro ra- 
dis, ro raid, ro raidset; rate 
IV, 5. 

rdim I range the sea, row ; 
ro raiset III, 7. 

A iiriu IV, 3. 

ranic perfect of ricim. 

rannaim I divide; roindl, 49. 

re N. time; ree, rea. 



re n-, ria n- prep, before. 

reckt N. or M. right, law; rechto. 

Rechtmar see Fedelmid. 

reclesa VI, cf. O'Reilly's reig- 
lios F. a church, shrine. 

reid light III, 5. 

reimm run, to run, to travel. 

renim I give, sell ; ni rial I, 

resin conj. before I, 24. 

rethince, raithinchi VI, 23 cf. 
roithinche hilar it as Z. 2 809. 

ri M. king ; r%, a ri« 

ria for f ria VI, 13. 

ria n- see re n~. 

riam adv. antea III, 7. 

rmr F, voluntas ; do rer (more 
correctly reir) according to 
wish, secundum. 

riat from renim. 

riccim (for ro-iccim) I reach ; 
recait, ricfam, ranic, r6-is 
II, 4, ro~isam VI, 7, ?ms- 
swift, I, 37, r6-ismais III, 6. 

r%ofo royal ; rigdai. 

rigdomna royal heir IV, 1. 

rige sovereignty ; irrigi Tem- 
rach IV, 1. 

rigfennid IV, 3, "king war- 
rior," (Hennessy) leader of 
the Fenians. 

ro, ru verbal particle (§ 251) ; 
rom gab III, 5; rom bia I, 
26 ; rot giuil II, 4 ; rod HI 
IV, 5; rud chualatar I, 44; 
ro m-boi I, 38 ; co raoe for 

ro oey rop, roptar for ro 6o, 

ro batar ; cor, nir, diar for 

co ro, ni ro, dia ro. 
rochdim very beautiful III, 3. 
rochetul N. strong singing ; re 

rochetul III, 4. 
rocJiim, roichim I come, adeo ; 

inf. rochtain IV, 6. 
roed, raed gen. raeda forest. 
rofaith title of nobility : the 

degree next to the king IV, 

rogba see gabaim. 
ro-is see riccim. 
Eomanach Romanus. 
ronta VI, 17, from do-ronad? 
rose M. eye ; roise. 
ross forest. 

rotha VI, 17, from tdim § 386 ? 
rotnai VI, 16, for rontai from 

do-r6nad 2 
rilad red. 

rwc tulit ; rucad IV, 7. 
r& F. secret ; A. 


-#a augmentative particle of 
the 1st sg. dodeochad-sa 

sadaile F. ease. 

saethar see sdithar. 

saidim I sit; saides III, 4. 

saigim I seek for, visit ; inf. 
c?o saigid. 



sainemail distinguished. 
sdithar, sdetJiar, soethar N. 

work, labour; saithir. 
sale, saile sputum ; dit sailiu, 

da sale I, 50. 
salm M. psalm. 
sdrigim contemno, inf. sarugud 

IV, 3. 
scdich prseteriit I, 29, from 

cuichim discedo. 
scailim I untie, scatter ; ex- 

plieo scailter, ro scailed. 
scar aim I separate (with fri) ; 

inf. scarad. 
scribaimn I write II, 3 seribtair 

se, se he, see e, or se, for se, ol 

sesom I, 39*. 
-se augmentative particle of the 

1 sg., see -sa ; am cimbid-se 

I, 14. 
,sec/i prep, beside, beyond, past ; 

conj. secA ni except, has not 

I, 7, 20. 
sechur dep. I follow, pursue ; 

inf. sechem F. im secJdm. 
senaim I bless, I cross, senam 

VI, 6. 
Sencha I, 34. 
se^w M. old age; sentaid III, 

seoZ M. sail, linen cloth V, 1, 

in t-iuil. 
seolbrat M. linen cloth V, 1, 2. 
ses 1 , co lar (upon the ground) 

VI, 4, cf. sis deorsum. 

-si augmentative particle of 

the 2 pi. di bar n-dg-sil, 15, 

36; adib moga-si 13, 25. 
si she IV. 4. 
siacht reached III, 7. 
sto they. 
sid peace. 
sid F. the dwelling of the side 

or fairies III, 1,6; des side 

the fairies III, 1. 
sidamail peaceful ; co sidamail 

IV, 8. 
side demonstrative pronoun, 

this, a ainm-side III, 3 ; 

IV, 3. 
sin demonstrative pronoun, 

that in claideb sin that 

sword ; in n-ingin i sin that 

girl ; in sin that one, de-sift 

thence, iar sin thereupon ; 

and-sin then, there. 
sirim I seek. 
siu see so. 
slechtaim I kneel, Latin flecto; 

slechtam VI, 7. 
slechtainYI, 22 "genuflexions," 

Stokes, Corm. Transl. p. 77. 
slemon, slemain smooth Latin 

levis, lubricus (Ir. Gl. 639). 
so demonstrative pronoun in 

gnim so this deed I, 40; in 

so to$€. 
-so -su augmentative particle 

of the 2 sg. dait siu I, 35 ; 
fot menmain-siu III, 5. 
sochefieoil noble III, 2. 



sochuide F. a number, multi- 

sochraite F. army; socraiti IV, 

sodain demonstrative pronoun 
hoc; la sodain thereupon. 

soethar see s&ithar. 

soichim I reach ; to soich 111,5. 

soiraim, sderaim I set free, nob 
soirfa, inf. soirad. 

solma swift VI, 4. 

-som augmentative particle of 
the 3 sg. M. and the 3 pi.; 
congni-som; ni thartsat-som ; 
uad-som, leu-som. 

son pron. hoc. 

sond y dia sund IV, 2, cf . sonnad 
and sonnach wall. 

soscele N". evangelium; sosceli. 

srathar F. saddle II, 4. 

sroinim I destroy, conquer; 
inf. sroiniud V, 2. 

smith VI, 10 senior, "digni- 
fied person," Stokes, Corm. 
Transl. p. 54. 

s^c&s up, upwards. 

suba joy III, 6. In the ms. 
subatar is written in one 

sude, suide "N. seat. 

sude, suide dem. pron. the, this ; 
(commonly "N.) ; c& suidiu 
I, 36, oc suidiu 37, iarsudiu 
III, 7, os ^w co swcfo" IV, 7, 
efe suidib III, 1. 

am/ F. eye. 

sfwr sister ? 

swr III, 6, for 

In the ms. airunsur 
written in one word. 

suthain everlasting III, 2. 

-t suffixed pronoun of the 2 sg. 

tabur I give, ni taibre, tabair, 
na taibred, tibred ; inf. do 
ihabirt, do thabairt. 

Tadg name of a druid IV, 3. 
Tulach Taidg IV, 7, do 
Thadg 3. 

tagid V, 1 cf. taig .i. tair do- 
ridhis (O'Dav. p. 50). 

taidbrim offero ; taidbred 111,5. 

tair come III, 2, cf. § 286. 

tairchanim I prophesy; ftm*- 

tairle VI, 5, adeat, cf. tarfo. 

tairmthecht transgression. 

tairnim I descend, lower; tair- 
nid III, 6. 

taitneinach shining. 

tan F. time ; iar tain after that 
IV, 2, m £<m and in tain 
(with a relative clause fol- 
lowing) whilst, as, when, 
I, 28, 40, 41, 43, 45. 

tdnic from ticcim. 

tar, dar prep, over, Latin trans ; 
tarsin, tarais, tarfar cennsi 
I, 36, 42 ; tar esi behind, 
after, for. 

tarat, dorat he gave; ni thartsat. 

tardechta III, 5 1 



tarla accidit IV, 8. 

tathut see tdu. 

tdu, to I am; tathut tibi est 
III, 6; itaam ubi suimis 
III, 1, amal nondad I, 11. 

tech N. house ; dia thig. 

techim I flee ; ro teich. 

techt messenger ; techta IV, 3. 

techtaire, tecttaire M. mes- 

teirt Latin tertia (terce, the 
canonical hour) VI, 12. 

Temair Tara, the seat of the 
chief king of Ireland IV, 1 ; 

Temeair LHachrce IV, 8 Lua- 
chair the old name of a dis- 
trict " between the counties 
of Limerick and Kerry." 

Temair Mairci, co Temraig 
Mairci IV, 6. 

temel darkness. 

tempul templum ; tempuil. 

tenga tongue III, 5. 

tesarbi I, 38 from tesbuith, 

tet teit he goes I, 41. 

Tethra i. ri Fom6ire king of 
the Fomorians (a legendary 
race) iter triunu Tethrach 
" among Tethra' s mighty 
men." Corm. Transl. p. 157, 
do d6inib Tethrach III, 4. 

liagaim I go ; tiagar I, 40. 

tibred see tabur. 

tichtu F. coming. 

ticcim, ticim I come ; tic ; mo- 
tdticfa III, 5 ; tised, tisad, 

tigerne M. Lord ; dia thigemi 
I, 16. 

timmarcte Latin complicatus 
V, 1 from do-imm-urc ango. 

tinaim I vanish ; ro tinastar 

tiTidlaim I assemble ; tinolazd. 

tir N. land ; tiri, a tirib. 

tli VI, 17 read cl% strength 
(O'B.) ? 

tocbaim I lift ; tocbam. 

tochra, oc a tochra IV, 3 "were 
courting her" (Hennessy). 

tochuiriur, docuiriur dep. as- 
cisco (Z. 2 873); tot-churethar 
III, 4 perhaps we should 
read -churetar. 

toga see togu. 

togaim I choose; ro ihog IV, 1. 

togu, toga choice. 

tond, tonn F. wave, flood, fri 
tdind III, 6 1 

t6irand 9 tdrand N. sign I, 50. 

toisigecht F. leadership, guid- 
ance I, 28. 

tomlim, toimlim I consume, 
tomled III, 4. 

tomnibther I, 43 from a de- 
ponent tomniur (to- — do -fo- 
ci, do-moiniur puto) I expect. 

tongaim I vow (tar by so and 
so) ; toissed I, 45. 



tor IY, 7 cf. tor .i. imat 

(crowd) O'Dav. 
torchair fell IV, 8. 
tor mast ar see § 321. 
torrach gravid. 
trd, tra conj. now, but. 
trdig strand. 

truth !NT. time, hour ; tratha. 
treb M. tribe ; truib, trebaib. 
Trenm6r father of Cumall ; 

mac Trenmoir IY, 3. 
tre thoathbandu III, 3, perhaps 

" through heathen tricks." 
tri (tri 1, 22); tre prep, through, 

tri chumsanad I, 41, £W£ I, 

12, tfremi* IY, 3. 
£r£ three; fo thri thrice I, 50, 

trirech song, hymn II, 2, cf. 

O' Curry on the Manners, &c. 

Ill, p. 388, Stokes Corm. 

Trausl. p. 89. 
Triscoth I, 34 
£m£ YI, 5, Latin tristis ? 
trom heavy. 
td thou. 

fata silence YI, 23. 
tualaing peritus, gnarus IY, 

tiiare, tuara F. food III, 4. 
tdascert the northern part Y, 


tuath F. people; e^r tilaith I, 

2%t*A Zto/w IY, 1, 7. 
to tulit, dedit IY, 2, tucthar 

Y, 1, toad IY, 3. 
tucsatarV, 2 from da-ucci } tucci 

intelligit Z. 2 431. 
tuitim I fall ; dofuit IY, 5. 
tulach F. hill. 
2Wac£ 2W0r IY, 7. 
tus beginning, ar thus at first. 
tu-su pron. thou. 


uachtor see ochtar. 

uad, itadib, huain, iXaib see 6. 

wir, uare conj. because, see 

Hall F. haughtiness. 

^a5, Mas prep. over. 

uasal noble, elevated; com- 
parative huaisliu. 

uathmar dreadful; uathmair. 

ubull apple III, 4. 

uile, ule whole, all. 

uisse just. 

Urgrend IY, 4. 

Msce, uisce, M. water, ^sei, <i£ 

Usnech place in West Meath ; 
Usnig III, 1. 

ut adv. there. 


By the Translator. 


Founded on an Examination of some Manuscripts in the British Museum. 
St Bartholomew's Hospital Eeports, 1875. 

SMITH, ELDER, and CO., London. 


(Text and Translation with Vocabulary) from the Dindsenchas 
in the Book of Leinster. 

ADLARD, Bartholomew Close, London, 1881. 

University Press, Cambridge. 
October. 1802. 


W§t ©amMtige Sintbetstts Press. 


A short Commentary on the Hebrew and Aramaic Text of the 

Book of Daniel, by A. A. Be van, M.A., Fellow of Trinity College. 
Demy 8vo. 8s. 


The Old Testament in Greek according to the Septuagint. Edited 

by the Rev. Professor H. B. Swete, D.D. Crown 8vo. Vol. I. 
Genesis — IV Kings, p. 6d. Vol. II. I Chronicles — Tobit. js, 6d. 

[Vol. III. In the Press. 

' The Book of Psalms in Greek according to the Septuagint. Being 

a portion of Vol. II. of the above work. Crown 8vo. is. 6d. 

The Parallel New Testament Greek and English. The New 

Testament, being the Authorised Version set forth in 161 1 Arranged in 
Parallel Columns with the Revised Version of 1881, and with the original 
Greek, as edited by the late F. H. A. Scrivener, M.A., D.C.L., LL.D. 
Crown 8vo. 11s. 6d. {The Revised Version is the joint Property of the 
Universities of Cambridge and Oxford.) 

Greek and English Testament, in parallel columns on the same 
page. Edited by J. Scholefield, M.A. New Edition, with the marginal 
references as arranged and revised by Dr Scrivener. js. 6d. 

Greek and English Testament. The Student's Edition of the 

above on large writing paper* \\.o. \is. 
The New Testament in the Original Greek, according to the 

Text followed in the Authorised Version, with the Variations adopted 
in the Revised Version. Edited by the late F. H. A. Scrivener, M.A., 
D.C.L., LL.D. Crown 8vo. 6s. New Edit. Fcap 8vo. [In the Press. 

Biblical Fragments from Mount Sinai, edited by J. Rendel 
Harris, M.A. Demy 4to. 10s. 6d. 

Notitia Codicis Quattuor Evangeliorum Grseci membranacei viris 

doctis hucusque incogniti quern in museo suo asservat Eduardus Reuss 
Argentoratensis. 2s. 

London: Cambridge Warehouse, Ave Maria Lane. 



The Harklean Version of the Epistle to the Hebrews, Chap. 

XI. 28 — XIII. 25. Now edited for the first time with Introduction 
and Notes on this version of the Epistle. By Robert L. Bensly. 
Demy 8vo. 5^. 


The Latin Heptateuch. Published piecemeal by the French printer 
William Morel (1560) and the French Benedictines E. Martene (1733) 
and J. B. Pitra (1852 — 88). Critically reviewed by John E. B. Mayor, 
M.A. Demy 8vo. jos. 6d. 

The Missing Fragment of the Latin Translation of the Fourth 
Book of Ezra, discovered and edited with Introduction, Notes, and 
facsimile of the MS., by Prof. Bensly, M.A. Demy 4to. 10s. 

Codex S. Ceaddae Latinus. Evangelia SSS. Matthaei, Marci, 

Lucae ad cap. III. 9 complectens, circa septimum vel octavum saeculum 
scriptvs, in Ecclesia Cathedrali Lichfieldiensi servatus. Cum codice ver- 
sionis Vulgatae Amiatino contulit, prolegomena conscripsit, F. H. A. 
Scrivener, A. M., LL.D. Imp. 4to. £1. is. 

The Codex Sangallensis (A). A Study in the Text of the Old 

Latin Gospels, by J. Rendel Harris, MA. Royal 8vo. 3s. 

The Origin of the Leicester Codex of the New Testament. By 

J. R. Harris, M.A. With 3 plates. Demy 4to. iar. 6d. 


The Four Gospels in Anglo-Saxon and Northumbrian Versions. 
By Rev. Prof. Skeat, Litt.D. One Volume. Demy Quarto. 30J. 
Each Gospel separately. 10s. 


The Authorised Edition of the English Bible (1611), its Sub- 
sequent Reprints and Modern Representatives. By the late F. H. A. 
Scrivener, M.A., D.C.L., LL.D. Crown 8vo. *js. 6d. 

The Cambridge Paragraph Bible of the Authorized English 

Version, with the Text revised by a Collation of its Early and other 
Principal Editions, the Use of the Italic Type made uniform, the Mar- 
ginal References remodelled, and a Critical Introduction, by the late 
F. H. A. Scrivener, M.A., LL.D. Crown 4to., cloth gilt, 21s. 

The Student's Edition of the above, on good writing paper, with one 
column of print and wide margin to each page for MS. notes. Two Vols. 
Crown 4to., cloth, gilt, 31J. 6d. 

London: Cambridge Warehouse, Ave Maria Lane. 


The Lectionary Bible, with Apocrypha, divided into Sections 
adapted to the Calendar and Tables of Lessons of r 871. Cr. 8vo. 3*. 6d. 

The Book of Ecclesiastes. Large Paper Edition. By the Very 
Rev. E. H. Plumptre, late Dean of Wells. Demy 8vo. 7^. 6d. 

(See also pp. 24, 25, Cambridge Bible for Schools.) 

The Gospel History of our Lord Jesus Christ in the Language 

of the Revised Version, arranged in a Connected Narrative, especially 
for the use of Teachers and Preachers. By Rev. C. C. James, M.A. 
Crown 8vo. $s. 6d. 

A Harmony of the Gospels in the words of the Revised Version 

with copious references, tables &c. Arranged by Rev. C. C. James, M.A. 
Crown 8vo. 5J. 

Wilson's Illustration of the Method of explaining the New Testa- 
ment, by the early opinions of Jews and Christians concerning Christ. 
Edited by T. Turton, D.D. Demy 8vo. $s. 


A Classified Index to the Leonine, Gelasian, and Gregorian 

Sacramentaries of Muratori. By H. A. Wilson, M.A., Fellow of 
Magdalen College, Oxford. Demy 8vo. $s. net. 

Breviarium ad Usum Sarum. A Reprint of the folio edition by 
Chevallon and Regnault, Paris, 1531. Edited by F. Procter, M.A. 
and Chr. Wordsworth, M.A. Demy 8vo. 

Vol. i. Kalendar and Temporale. i8i". 

Vol. 2. Psalter &c. 12.?. 

Vol. 3. Sanctorale. With an Introduction, lists of editions from the 
papers of H. Bradshaw, and complete Indexes. 15^. 

The three volumes together, £2. 2s. 

Breviarium Bomanura a Francisco Cardinali Quignonio editum 

et recognitum iuxta editionem Venetiis a.d. 1535 impressam curante 
Johanne Wickham Legg. Demy 8vo. 12s, 

The Greek Liturgies. Chiefly from original Authorities. By C. A. 
Swainson, D.D., late Master of Christ's College. Cr. 4to. 15J. 

The Pointed Prayer Book, being the Book of Common Prayer 
with the Psalter or Psalms of David, pointed as they are to be sung or 
said in Churches. Royal 241010, cloth, is. 6d. 

The same in square 32mo. cloth, 6d. 

London: Cambridge Warehouse \ Ave Maria Lane, 


Wheatly on the Common Prayer, edited by G. K. Corrie, D.D., 

late Master of Jesus College. Demy Octavo. 7j. 6d. 

The Cambridge Psalter, for the use of Choirs and Organists. Spe- 
cially adapted for Congregations in which the "Cambridge Pointed Prayer 
Book" is used. Demy 8vo. cloth, 3*. 6d. Cloth limp cut flush, is. 6d. 

The Paragraph Psalter, arranged for the use of Choirs by the 
Right Rev. B. F. Westcott, D.D., Lord Bp. of Durham. Fcp. 4to. 5*. 

The same in royal 32mo. Cloth, is. Leather, u. 6d. 

The Homilies, with Various Readings, and the Quotations from 
the Fathers given at length in the Original Languages. Edited by 
G. E. Corrie, D.D., late Master of Jesus College. Demy 8vo. 7*. 6d. 

Two Forms of Prayer of the time of Queen Elizabeth. Now First 

Reprinted. Demy Octavo. 6d, 


Sayings of the Jewish Fathers, comprising Pirqe Aboth and 

Pereq R. Meir in Hebrew and English, with Critical Notes. By C. 
Taylor, D.D., Master of St John's College. {New Edition. Preparing* 

The Palestinian Mishna. By W. H. Lowe, M.A. Royal 8vo. 215. 
Chagigah from the Babylonian Talmud. A Translation of the 

Treatise with Notes, etc. by A. W. Streane, B.D. Demy 8vo. 10s. 

Psalms of the Pharisees, commonly known as the Psalms of 
Solomon, by H. E. Ryle, B.D. and M. R. James, M.A. Demy 8vo. 15J. 

The Witness of Hermas to the Four Gospels. By C. Taylor, D.D. 

Master of St John's College, Cambridge. Fcap. 4to. Buckram, p. 6d. Net. 

Fragments of Philo and Josephus. Newly edited by J. Rendel 
Harris, M.A. With two Facsimiles. Demy 4to. 12s. 6d. 

The Rest of the Words of Baruch : A Christian Apocalypse of 

the year 136 A.D. The Text revised with an Introduction by J. Rendel 
Harris, M.A. Royal 8vo. 5J. 

The Teaching of the Apostles. Newly edited, with Facsimile Text 

and Commentary, by J. R. Harris, M.A. Demy 4to. 21s. 

A Collation of the Athos Codex of the Shepherd of Hermas. 

Together with an Introduction by Spyr. P. Lambros, Ph.D., translated 
and edited with a Preface and Appendices by J. Armitage Robinson, 
B.D. Demy 8vo. 3J. 6d. 

London; Cambridge Warehouse, Ave Maria Lane. 


The Philocalia of Origen. The Greek Text edited from the 

Manuscripts, with Critical Apparatus and Indexes, and an Introduction 
on the Sources of the Text. By J. Armitage Robinson, B.D. 

[In the Press. 

Theodore of Mopsuestia's Commentary on the Minor Epistles of 

S. Paul. The Latin Version with the Greek Fragments, edited from the 
MSS. with Notes and an Introduction, by Professor H. B. Swete, D.D. 
Vol. I., containing the Introduction, and the Commentary upon Galatians — 
Colossians. Demy Octavo. i2x. 

Volume II., containing the Commentary on i Thessalonians— Philemon, 
Appendices and Indices, lis. 

The Acts of the Martyrdom of Perpetua and Felicitas; the ori- 
ginal Greek Text now first edited from a MS. in the Library of the 
Convent of the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem, by J. Rendel Harris and 
Seth K. Gifford. Royal 8vo. 5*. 

The Diatessaron of Tatian. By J. Rendel Harris, M.A. Royal 

8vo. $s. 


Edited by J. Armitage Robinson, E.D., Fellow and Assistant Tutor 
of Christ's College. 

VoLL No. 1. The Apology of Aristides on behalf of the Christians. 

Edited from a Syriac MS., with an Introduction and Translation 
by J. Rendel Harris, M.A., and an Appendix containing the 
chief part of the Original Greek, by J. Armitage Robinson, B.D. 
Demy 8vo. [Reprinting. 

No. 2. The Passion of S. Perpetua: the Latin Text freshly 

edited from the Manuscripts with an Introduction and Appendix 
containing the Original Latin Form of the Scillitan Martyrdom ; 
by J. Armitage Robinson, B.D. \s. Net. 

No. 3. The Lord's Prayer in the Early Church: with 
Special Notes on the Controverted Clauses; by F. H. Chase, B.D., 
Christ's College. 5J. Net. 

No. 4. The Fragments of Heracleon : the Greek Text 
with an Introduction by A. E. Brooke, M.A., Fellow of King's 
College. 4J. Net. 

London: Cambridge Warehouse^ Ave Maria Lane. 


Vol. II. No. 1. A Study of Codex Bezae: by J. .Rendel Harris, 
M.A. 7 s. 6d. Net. 

No. 2. The Testament of Abraham, By M. R. James, 

M.A., with an Appendix containing Translations from the Arabic 
of the Testaments of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, by W. E. Barnes r 
B.D. $s. Net. 

The following are in course of preparation : 

No. 3. The Rules of Tyconius: freshly edited from the 

MSS., with an examination of his witness to the Old Latin Version : 
by F. C. Burkitt, M.A. 

No. 4. Apocrypha Anecdota: containing the Latin Ver- 
sion of the Apocalypse of Paul, the Apocalypses of the Virgin, of 
Sedrach, of Zosimas, &c: by M. R. James, M.A. 

No. 5. The Homeric Centones: by J. Rendel Harris, 

M.A., University Lecturer in Palaeography. 

No. 6. The Curetonian Syriac Gospels: re-edited with a 

' new translation into English: by R. L. Bensly, M.A., Lord 
Almoner's Reader in Arabic. 

Tertullianus de Corona Militis, de Spectaculis, de Idololatria 

with Analysis and English Notes, by G. Currey, D.D. Crown 8vo. $s. 

Sancti Irensei Episcopi Lugdunensis lihros quinque adversus 
Hsereses, edidit W. Wigan Harvey, S.T.B. Collegii Regalis olim 
Socius. 2 Vols. Demy Octavo. iSs. 

Theophili Episcopi Antiochensis Libri Tres ad Autolycum. Edidit 

Prolegomenis Versione Notulis Indicibus instruxit Gulielmus Gilson 
Humphry, S.T.B. Post Octavo. $s. 

Theophylacti in Evangelium S. Matthaei Commentarius. Edited 
by W. G. Humphry, B.D. Demy Octavo. 7j. 6d. 

M. Minucii Felicis Octavius. The text newly revised from the 

original MS. with an English Commentary, Analysis, Introduction, and 
Copious Indices. By H. A. Holden, LL.D. Cr. 8vo. >js. 6d. 

S. Austin and his place in the History oi Christian Thought. 

Being the Hulsean Lectures for 1885. By W. Cunningham, D.D. 
Demy 8vo. Buckram, 12s, 6d. 

Works of Isaac Barrow, compared with the original MSS. A 
new Edition, by A. Napier, M.A. 9 Vols. Demy 8vo. ^3. 3* . 

London; Cambridge Warehouse, Ave Maria Lane. 


Treatise of the Pope's Supremacy, and a Discourse concerning 
the Unity of the Church, by I. Barrow. Demy 8vo. js. 6d. 

Select Discourses, by John Smith, late Fellow of Queens' Col- 
lege, Cambridge. Edited by H. G. Williams, B.D., late Professor of 
Arabic. Royal Octavo. *js. 6d. 

Pearson's Exposition of the Creed, edited by Temple Cheval- 
lier, B.D. 3rd Edition revised by R. Sinker, D.D. Demy 8vo. 12s. 

An Analysis of the Exposition of the Creed, written by the Right 
Rev. Father in God, John Pearson, D.D. Compiled by W. H. Mill, 
D.D. Demy Octavo. $s. 

De Obligatione Conscientise Praelectiones decern Oxonii in Schola 

Theologica habitae a Roberto Sanderson, SS. Theologiae ibidem 
Professore Regio. With English Notes, including an abridged Transla- 
tion, by W. Whewell, D.D. Demy 8vo. 7s. 6d. 

Lectures on Divinity delivered in the University of Cambridge. 
By John Hey, D.D. Third Edition, by T. Turton, D.D., late Lord 
Bishop of Ely. 2 vols. Demy Octavo. 15s. 

Caesar Morgan's Investigation of the Trinity of Plato, and of Philo 

Judseus. 2nd Ed., revised by H. A. Holden, LL.D. Cr. 8vo. 4s. 

Christ the Life of Men. Being the Hulsean Lectures for 1888. 
By Rev. H. M. Stephenson, M.A. Crown 8vo. is. 6d. 


Lectures on the Comparative Grammar of the Semitic Languages 

from the Papers of the late William Wright, LL.D. Demy 8vo. 14s. 

The History of Alexander the Great, being the Syriac version of 

the Pseudo-Callisthenes. Edited from Five Manuscripts, with an English 
Translation and Notes, by E. A. W. Budge, Litt.D. Demy 8vo. i$s. 

The Chronicle of Joshua the Stylite edited in Syriac, with an 

English translation and notes, by W. Wright, LL.D. Demy 8vo. 10s. 6d. 

KalHah and Dimnah, or, the Fables of Bidpai; with an English 

Translation of the later Syriac version, with Notes, by the late 
I. G. N. Keith-Falconer, M.A. Demy 8vo. 75. 6d. 

The Poems of Beha ed din Zoheir of Egypt. With a Metrical 

Translation, Notes and Introduction, by the late E. H. Palmer, M.A. 
2 vols. Crown Quarto. 

Vol. I. The Arabic Text. Paper covers. 10*. 6d. 

Vol. II. English Translation. Paper covers. 10s. 6d. 

London: Cambridge Warehouse, Ave Maria Lane. 



Mak&la-i-Shakhsi Sayy&h ki dar Kaziyya-i-B£b Navishta-Ast (a 

Traveller's Narrative written to illustrate the Episode of the Bab). Per- 
sian text, edited, translated and annotated, in two volumes, by E. G. 
Browne, M.A., M.B. Crown 8vo. 15s. net. Vol. II. (containing 
the Translation and Notes) separately, 10*. 6d. net. 

The New History (Tarikh-i-Jadid), a circumstantial account of the 
Babi movement in Persia from its first beginnings till the death of the 
Founder (a.d. 1844 — 1850), chiefly based on the contemporary history of 
Hajf Mirza Jani of Kashan, translated into English and supplemented by 
original historical documents, plans and fac-similes, by Edward G. 
Browne, M.A., M.B. 10s. 6d. net. 

Nalopakhyanam, or, The Tale of Nala; containing the Sanskrit 

Text in Roman Characters, with Vocabulary. By the late Rev. T. 
Jarrett, M.A. Demy 8vo. 10s. 

Notes on the Tale of Nala, for the use of Classical Students, by 

J. Peile, Litt.D., Master of Christ's College. Demy 8vo. 12s. 
The Divy&vad&na, a Collection of Early Buddhist Legends, now 

first edited from the Nepalese Sanskrit MSS. in Cambridge and Paris. 
By E. B. Cowell, M.A. and R. A. Neil, M.A. Demy 8vo. i&r. 


{See also pp. 16, 27.) 

Aeschylus. Agamemnon. With a translation in English Rhythm, 
and Notes Critical and Explanatory. New Edition. Revised. By 
the late B. H. Kennedy, D.D. Crown 8vo. 6s. 

Aeschyli Fabulae.— iketiaes xoh#opoi in libro Mediceo men- 
dose scriptae ex vv. dd. coniecturis emendatius editae cum Scholiis Graecis 
et brevi adnotatione critica, curante F. A. Paley, M.A., LL.D. Demv 
8vo. 7j. 6d. J 

Aristophanes. Equites. With Introduction and Notes by R. A. 
Neil, M.A. Demy 8vo. *\i n the Press. 

Aristotle.-IIEPl tfYXHS. Aristotle's Psychology, in Greek and 
English, with Introduction and Notes,by E.Wallace, M.A. Demy 8vo. i8j. 

Aristotle. The Rhetoric. With a Commentary by the late 
"i"^ j\ C( i PE i Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, revised and 
edited by J. E. Sandys, Litt.D. 3 Vols. Demy 8vo. 21*. 

London; Cambridge Warehouse, Ave Maria Lane. 


Demosthenes against Androtion and against Timocrates, with 

Introductions and English Commentary by William Wayte, M.A. 
Crown 8vo. *js. 6d. 

Select Private Orations of Demosthenes with Introductions and 
English Notes, by F. A. Paley, M. A., & J. E. Sandys, Litt.D. 

Part I. Contra Phormionem, Lacritum, Pantaenetum, Boeotum de No- 
mine, de Dote, Dionysodorum. Cr. 8vo. New Edition. 6s. 

Part II. Pro Phormione, Contra Stephanum I. II. -, Nicostratum, Cono- 
nem, Calliclem. Crown 8vo. New Edition, js. 6d. 

Demosthenes, Speech of, against the Law of Leptines. With 

Introduction and Critical and Explanatory Notes, by J. E. Sandys, 
Litt.D. Demy 8vo. gs* 

Euripides. Bacchae, with Introduction, Critical Notes, and Archae- 
ological Illustrations, by J. E. Sandys, Litt.D. Third Edition. Crown 8vo. 
12s. 6d. 

Euripides. Ion. The Greek Text with a Translation into English 
Verse, Introduction and Notes by A. W. Verrall, Litt.D. Demy 8vo. 
p. 6d. 

The Mimes of Herondas : the text edited with a Commentary by 
Walter Headlam, M. A., Fellow of King's College. Demy 8vo. 

[In the Press. 

Homer's Odyssey. The text edited in accordance with modern 
criticism by Arthur Platt, M.A., late Fellow of Trinity College, 
Cambridge. Crown 8vo. \s. 6d. 

Homer's Iliad. By the same Editor. [In the Press. 

Pindar. Olympian and Pythian Odes. With Notes Explanatory 
and Critical, Introductions and Introductory Essays. Edited byC. A. M. 
Fennell, Litt. D. Crown 8vo. gs. 

— The Isthmian and Nemean Odes by the same Editor, gs. 

Plato's Phsedo, literally translated, by the late E. M. Cope, Fellow 
of Trinity College, Cambridge. Demy Octavo. 5^. 

The Theaetetus of Plato, with a Translation and Notes by the 
late B. H. Kennedy, D.D. Crown 8vo. 7s. 6d. 

The Nuptial Number of Plato : its solution and significance, by 
J. Adam, M.A., Fellow and Tutor of Emmanuel College, Cambridge. 
Demy 8vo. 2s. 6d. Net. 

Plato's Protagoras. With Introduction and Notes by J. Adam, 
M.A., and A. M. Adam. [In the Press. 

London; Cambridge Warehouse, Ave Mafia Lane. 


Sophocles : the Plays and Fragments. With Critical Notes, Com- 
mentary, and Translation in English Prose, by R. C. Jebb, Litt. D.,. 
LL.D., Regius Professor of Greek in the University of Cambridge. 

Parti. Oedipus Tyrannus. Demy 8vo. Second Edit. lis. 6d. 

Part II. Oedipus Coloneus. Demy 8vo. Second Edit. 12s. 6d. 

Part III. Antigone. Demy 8vo. Second Edit. \i$. 6d. 

Part IV. Philoctetes. Demy 8vo. 12s. 6d. 

Part V. Trachiniae. Demy 8vo. 12s. 6d. 

Part VI. Electra. [In the Press- 

Fragments of Zeno and Cleanthes, an Essay which obtained the 

Hare Prize in the year 1889. By A. C. Pearson, B. A., Christ's College,. 
Cambridge. Crown 8vo. iar. 

Pronunciation of Ancient Greek translated from the Third German 
edition of Dr Blass by W. J. Purton, B.A. Demy 8vo. 6s. 

An Introduction to Greek Epigraphy. Part I. The Archaic In- 
scriptions and the Greek Alphabet. By E. S. Roberts, M.A., Fellow 
and Tutor of Gonville and Caius College. Demy 8vo. 18s. 


(See also pp. 27, 28.) 

M. Tulli Ciceronis ad M. Brutum Orator. A Revised Text. 
Edited with Introductory Essays and Critical and Explanatory Notes, 
by J. E. Sandys, Litt.D. Demy 8vo. 16s. 

M. T. Ciceronis de Finibus Bonorum Libri Quinque. The Text 

revised and explained by J. S. Reid, Litt.D. [In the Press. 

Vol. III., containing the Translation. Demy 8vo. 8s. 

M. T. Ciceronis de Natura Deorum Libri Tres, with Introduction 
and Commentary by Joseph B. Mayor, M.A. Demy 8vo. Vol. I. 10s. 6d. 
Vol. II. 12s. 6d. Vol. III. iar. 

M. T. Ciceronis de Officiis Libri Tres with Marginal Analysis, an 

English Commentary, and Indices. New Edition, revised, by H. A. 
Holden, LL.D., Crown 8vo. qs. 

M. T. Ciceronis de Officiis Libri Tertius, with Introduction,, 
Analysis and Commentary by H. A. Holden, LL.D. Cr. 8vo. 2s. 

London: Cambridge Warehouse, Ave Maria Lane. 

LATIN. ii 

M. Tulli Ciceronis pro C. Rahirio [Perduellionis Reo] Oratio ad 
Quirites. With Notes, Introduction and Appendices. By W. E. Heit- 
land, M.A. Demy 8vo. is. 6d. 

P. Vergili Maronis Opera, cum Prolegomenis et Commentario 
Critico pro Syndicis Preli Academic! edidit Benjamin Hall Kennedy, 
S.T.P. Extra fcp. 8vo. 3*. 6d. 

A Latin-English Dictionary. Printed from the (Incomplete) MS, 
of the late T. H. Key, M.A., F.R.S. Demy 4.0. £1. us. 6d. 

Graduated Passages from Greek and Latin Authors for First-Sight 

Translation. Selected and supplied with short Notes for beginners by 
H. Bendall, M.A., Head Master, and C E, Laurence, B.A., Assist- 
ant Master, of Blackheath Proprietary School. Crown 8vo. Part I. Easy. 
is. 6d. Part II. Moderately Easy. is. Part III. Moderately 
Difficult, is. Part IV. Difficult. 2s. 


Transactions. Vol. I. 1872— 1880. 155-. Vol. II. 1881—1882. 

With Index to Vols. I., II. and Proceedings for 1882. 12s. Vol. III. 
Pt. I. 1886. $s. 6d. Pt. 11. 1889. is. Pt. in. 1890. is. 6d. 

Proceedings. I— III. 2s. 6d. IV— VI. 2s. 6d. VII— IX. 2s. 6d. 
X— XII. 2s. 6d. XIII— XV. is. 6d. XVI— XVIII. ». 6d. XIX 
—XXI. is. 6d, XXII— XXIV. 1889. iJ. XXV— XXVII. is. net. 
XXVIII— XXX. With Laws and List of Members for 1892. is. net. 

Spelling Reform and English Literature by H. Sweet. 2d. 

PRONUNCIATION OF LATIN in the Augustan Period. $d. . 

An Eighth Century Latin-Anglo-Saxon Glossary preserved in the 

Library of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, edited by J. H. Hessels. 
Demy 8vo. iar. 


Random Exercises in French Grammar, Homonyms and Synonyms 

for Advanced Students, by L. Boquel, Lecturer at Emmanuel and 
Newnham Colleges. Crown 8vo. $s. 6d. 

Key to the above by the same. Crown 8vo. 10s. 6d. (net). 

Exercises in French Composition for Advanced Students. By the 
same. Demy 8vo. 5s. 6d. (net). 

London : Cambridge Warehouse, Ave Maria Lane. 



A Grammar of the Irish Language. By Prof. Windisch. Trans- 
lated by Dr Norman Moore. Crown 8vo. 7*. 6d. 


Chapters on English Metre. By Rev. Joseph B. Mayor, M.A. 

Demy 8vo. p. 6d. 

Studies in the Literary Relations of England with Germany in 

the Sixteenth Century. By C. H, Herford, M.A. Crown 8vo. gs. 

From Shakespeare to Pope. An Inquiry into the causes and 

phenomena of the Rise of Classical Poetry in England. By E. Gosse, 
M.A. Crown 8vo. 6s. 

Gray and his Friends. Letters and Relics in great part hitherto 

unpublished. Edited by the Rev. D. C. Tovey, M.A. Crown 8vo. 6s. 


The Stanford Dictionary of Anglicised Words and Phrases. Edited 

for the Syndics of the University Press by C A. M. Fennell, D.Litt., 
late Fellow of Jesus College, Cambridge, Editor of Pindar. Demy 4-to. 
Half-buckram, 31s. 6d.; half-morocco, 42s. 

Contributions to the Textual Criticism of the Divina Commedia. 

Including the complete collation throughout the Inferno of all the MSS. 
at Oxford and Cambridge. By the Rev. E. Moore, D.D. Demy8vo. 21s. 

The Literature of the French Renaissance. An Introductory 

Essay. By A.* A. Tilley, M.A. Crown 8vo. 6s. 


The Collected Mathematical Papers of Arthur Cayley, ScD., 

F.R.S. Demy 4to. 10 vols. 

Vols. I., II., III., IV. and V. 25 s. each. [Vol. VI. In the Press. 

Mathematical and Physical Papers. By Sir G. G. Stokes, Sc.D., 

LL.D. Reprinted from the Original Journals and Transactions, with 
additional Notes by the Author. Vol.1. Demy8vo. \$s. Vol. II. 15 j. 

[Vol. III. In the Press. 

London; Cambridge Warehouse, Ave Maria Lane. 


Mathematical and Physical Papers. By Lord Kelvin (Sir W. 
Thomson), LL.D., F.R.S. Collected from different Scientific Periodi- 
cals from May, 1841, to the present time. Demy 8vo. Vol. I. i8j. 
Vol. II. 15J. Vol. III. i8j. 

The Scientific Papers of the late Prof. J. Clerk Maxwell. Edited 

by W. D. Niven, M. A. 2 vols. Royal 4to. £3. $s. (net.) 

Scientific Papers compiled by the Royal Society of London, 

Catalogue of. Vols. I. — VI., for the years 1800 — 1863, Demy 4to. cloth 
(Vol. I. in half-morocco), ^4 (net) ; half-morocco, ^5. 5«r. (net). Vols. 
VII.— VIII. for the years 1864— 1873, cloth, £1. us. 6d. (net); half- 
morocco, £2. 5 s. (net). Single volumes cloth, 20s., or half-morocco, 2$s. 
(net). Vol. IX. New series for the years 1874-1883, cloth, 25s., half- 
morocco, 32s, (net). [Vol. X. In the Press. 

A History of the Study of Mathematics at Cambridge. By W. W. 
Rouse Ball, M.A. Crown 8vo. 6s. 

Diophantos of Alexandria; a Study in the History of Greek 
Algebra. By T. L. Heath, M.A. Demy 8vo. 7s. 6d. 

A History of the Theory of Elasticity and of the Strength of 

Materials, from Galilei to the present time. Vol. I. Galilei to Saint- 
Venant, 1639-1850. By the late I. Todhunter, Sc.D., edited and 
completed by Prof. Karl Pearson, M.A. Demy 8vo. 25s. 
Vol. II. By the same Editor. [Nearly ready. 

The Elastical Researches of Barre de Saint-Venant (extract from 

Vol. II. of Todhunter's History of the Theory of Elasticity), edited by 
Professor Karl Pearson, M.A. Demy 8vo. gs. 

A Short History of Greek Mathematics. By J. Gow, Litt. D., 

Fellow of Trinity College. Demy 8vo. 10s. 6d. 

A Treatise on Plane Trigonometry. By E. W. Hobson, ScD. 

Demy 8vo. 12s. 

A Treatise on the Theory of Determinants and their Applications 

in Analysis and Geometry. By R. F. Scott, M.A. Demy 8vo. 12s. 

Theory of Differential Equations. Part I. Exact Equations and 
Pfaff's Problem. By A. R. Forsyth, Sc.D., F.R.S. Demy 8vo. 12s. 

A Treatise on the Theory of Functions of a Complex Variable. By 

A. R. Forsyth, ScD., F.R.S. Royal 8vo. [In the Press. 

An Elementary Treatise on Quaternions. By P. G. Tait, M.A. 

Second Edition. Demy 8vo. 14J. 

A Treatise on Natural Philosophy. By Lord Kelvin (Sir W. 
Thomson), LL.D., and P. G. Tait, M.A. Part I. Demy 8vo. 16s. 
Part II. iSs. 

Elements of Natural Philosophy. By Lord Kelvin (Sir W. 
Thomson), and P. G. Tait. Second Edition. Demy 8vo. gs. 

London : Cambridge Warehouse, Ave Maria Lane. 


A Treatise on Analytical Statics. By E. J. Routh, Sc.D., F.R.S. 

Demy 8vo. Vol. I. 14J. Vol. II. 10s. 

A Treatise on Dynamics. By S. L. Loney, M.A. New and En- 
larged Edition. Crown 8vo. 7^. 6d. 

Solutions of the Examples in a Treatise on Elementary Dynamics. 

By the same Author. Crown 8vo. js. 6d. 

A Treatise on Geometrical Optics. By R. S. Heath, M.A. 

Demy 8vo. lis. 6d. 

An Elementary Treatise on Geometrical Optics. By R. S. Heath, 

M.A. Crown 8vo. $s. 

Hydrodynamics, a Treatise on the Mathematical Theory of Fluid 
Motion, by Horace Lamb, M.A. Demy 8vo. 12s. 

A Treatise on the Mathematical Theory of Elasticity. By A. E. H. 
Love, M.A., Fellow of St John's College. In Two Volumes. Demy 8vo. 
Vol. I. 12s. 

An attempt to test the Theories of Capillary Action, by F. 
Bashforth, B.D., and the late J. C. Adams, M.A. Demy 4to. £1. is. 

A Revised Account of the Experiments made with the Bashforth 

Chronograph, to find the resistance of the air to the motion of projectiles. 
By Francis Bashforth, B.D. Demy 8vo. 12s. 

Astronomical Observations made at the Observatory of Cambridge 
from 1846 to i860, by the late Rev. J. Challis, M.A. 

Astronomical Observations from 1861 to 1865. Vol. XXI Royal 
4 to., t$s. From 1866 to 1869. Vol. XXII. 15J. 

[Vol. XXIII. In the Press. 

The Mathematical Works of Isaac Barrow, D.D. Edited by 

W. Whewell, D.D. Demy Octavo. *js. 6d. 

The Analytical Theory of Heat. By Joseph Fourier. Translated 
with Notes, by A. Freeman, M.A. Demy 8vo. 12s. 

Elementary Thermodynamics, by J. Parker, M.A., Fellow of 
St John's College, Cambridge. Crown 8vo. gs. 

The Electrical Researches of the Honourable Henry Cavendish, 
F.R.S. Written between 1771 and 1781. Edited by J. Clerk Max- 
well, F.R.S. Demy 8vo. iSs. 

Practical Work at the Cavendish Laboratory. Heat. Edited by 
W. N. Shaw, M.A. Demy 8vo. $s f 

A Treatise on the General Principles of Chemistry, by M. M. 
Pattison Muir, m.a. Second Edition. Demy 8vo. 15*. 

Elementary Chemistry. By M. M. Pattison Muir, M.A., and 

Charles Slater, M.A., M.B. Crown 8vo. 4s. 6d. 

London: Cambridge Warehouse, Ave Maria Lane. 


Practical Chemistry. A Course of Laboratory Work. By M. M. 

Pattison Muir, M. A., and D. J. Carnegie, M.A. Cr. 8vo. 3s. 

Notes on Qualitative Analysis. Concise and Explanatory. By 
H. J. H. Fenton, M.A., F.C.S. New Edit. Crown 4*0. 6s. 
(See also p. 32, Pitt Press Mathematical Series,) 


Lectures on the Physiology of Plants, by S. H. Vines, ScD., 

Professor of Botany in the University of Oxford. Demy 8vo. 21s. 

Studies from the Morphological Laboratory. Edited by Adam 

Sedgwick, M.A., Fellow and Lecturer of Trinity College, Cambridge. 
Vol. II. Part I. Royal 8vo. 10^. Vol. II. Part II. ?s. 6d. Vol. III. 
Parts I. and II. js. 6d. each. Vol. IV. Part I. 12s. 6d, Vol. IV. 
Part II. 10s. Vol. IV. Part III. 5* Vol. V. Part I. 7*. 6d. Vol. V. 
Part II. 5J. 

A Catalogue of Books and Papers on Protozoa, Coelenterates, 

Worms, etc. published during the years 1861-1883, by D'Arcy W. 
Thompson, M.A. Demy 8vo. 12s. 6d. 

A Catalogue of the Collection of Birds formed by the late Hugh 

Edwin Strickland, now in the possession of the University of Cam- 
bridge. • By O. Salvin, M.A., F.R.S. £1. is. 

Illustrations of Comparative Anatomy, Vertebrate and Inverte- 
brate. Second Edition. Demy 8vo. 2s. 6d. 

Catalogue of Osteological Specimens contained in the Anatomical 
Museum of the University of Cambridge. Demy 8vo. 2s. 6d, 

Catalogue of Type Fossils in the Woodwardian Museum, Cambridge. 

By H. Woods, B.A., F.G.S., with Preface by Professor T. M c Kenny 
Hughes. Demy 8vo. 7J. 6d. 

A Catalogue of the Collection ol Cambrian and Silurian Fossils 

contained in the Geological Museum of the University of Cambridge, 
by J. W. Salter, F.G.S. Royal Quarto. ?s. 6d. 

A Catalogue of Australian Fossils. By R. Etheridge, Jun., F.G.S. 
Demy 8vo. 10s. 6d. 

The Fossils and Palseontological Affinities of the Neocomian Deposits 

of Upware and Brickhill, being the Sedgwick Prize Essay for 1879. By 
W. Keeping, M.A. Demy 8vo. iar. 6d. 

The Jurassic Rocks of Cambridge, being the Sedgwick Prize Essay 
for the year 1886, by the late T. Roberts, M.A. Demy 8vo. 3s. 6d. 

The Bala Volcanic Series of Caernarvonshire and Associated Rocks, 

being the Sedgwick Prize Essay for 1888, by A. Harker, M.A., F.G.S. 
Demy 8vo. 7^. 6d. 

Fossil Plants as Tests of Climate, being the Sedgwick Prize Essay 
for 1892. By A. C. Seward, M>A., St John's College. Demy 8vo. 

[Nearly ready. 

London: Cambridge Warehouse, Ave Maria Lane. 



Digest XIX. 2. Locati Conducti, with a Translation and Notes by 
C.H. Monro, M. A., Fellow of Gonville and Caius College. Crown 8vo. $s. 

An Introduction to the Study of Justinian's Digest. By Henry 
John Roby. Demy 8vo. gs. 

Justinian's Digest. Lib. VII., Tit. I. De Usufructu, with a Legal 
and Philological Commentary by H. J. Roby. Demy 8vo. gs. 
The Two Parts complete in One Volume. Demy 8vo. 18s. 

Selected Titles from the Digest, by Bryan Walker, M.A, LL.D. 

Part I. Mandati vel Contra. Digest xvu. I. Cr. 8vo. 5*. 

Part II. De Adquirendo rerum dominio, and De Adquirenda vel 

amittenda Possessione, Digest xli. 1 and 1. Crown 8vo. 6s. 

Part III. De Condictionibus, Digest xii. 1 and 4 — 7 and Digest 
XIII. 1 — 3. Crown 8vo. 6s. 

The Commentaries of Gaius and Rules of Ulpian. Translated 
and Annotated, by J. T. Abdy, LL.D., and Bryan Walker, M.A. 
LL.D. New Edition by Bryan Walker. Crown 8vo. 16s. 

The Institutes of Justinian, translated with Notes by J. T. Abdy, 
LL.D., and Bryan Walker, M.A, LL.D. Cr. 8vo. 16s. 

The Fragments of the Perpetual Edict of Salvius Julianus, Ar- 
ranged, and Annotated by the late Bryan Walker, LL.D. Cr. 8vo. 6s. 

Grotius de Jure Belli et Pacis, with the Notes of Barbeyrac and 

others; an abridged Translation of the Text, by W. Whewell, D.D. 
Demy 8vo. i*s. The translation separate, 6s. 

The Science of International Law. By T. A. Walker, MA., 

LL.M., of the Middle Temple. Demy 8vo. [Nearly ready. 

An Analysis of Criminal Liability. By E. C. Clark, LL.D., 

Regius Professor of Civil Law. Crown 8vo. ?s. 6d. 

Practical Jurisprudence. A comment on Austin. By the same. 

Crown 8vo. 9^. 

The Constitution of Canada. By J. E. C. Munro, LL.M* 

Demy 8vo. 10s. < 

Elements of the Law of Torts. A Text-book for Students. By 
Melville M. Bigelow, Ph.D. Crown 8vo. \os. 6d. 

A Selection of Cases on the English Law of Contract. By 

Gerard Brown Finch, M.A. Royal 8vo. i%s. 

Bracton's Note Book. A Collection of Cases decided in the King's 

Courts during the Reign of Henry the Third, annotated by a Lawyer of 
that time, seemingly by Henry of Bratton. Edited by F. W. Maitland. 
3 vols. Demy 8vo. £$. 3s. (net). 

London: Cambridge Warehouse, Ave Maria Lane. 

LAW. __I7 

A Selection of the State Trials. By J. W, Willis-Bund, M.A., 

LL.B. Crown 8vo. Vols. I. and II. In 3 parts. 30J. 

Land in Fetters. Being the Yorke Prize Essay for 1885. By 
T. E. Scrutton, M.A. Demy 8vo. p. 6d. 

Commons and Common Fields, or the History and Policy of the 

Laws of Commons and Enclosures in England. Being the Yorke Prize 
Essay for 1886. By T. E. Scrutton, M.A. Demy 8vo. 10s. 6d. 

History of the Law of Tithes in England. Being the Yorke Prize 
Essay for 1887. By W. Easterby, B.A., LL.B. Demy 8vo. 7-r. 6d. 

History of Land Tenure in Ireland. Being the Yorke Prize Essay 
for 1888. By W. E. Montgomery, M.A., LL.M. Demy 8vo. 10s. 6d. 

History of Equity as administered in the Court of Chancery. Being 

the Yorke Prize Essay for 1889. By D. M c Kenzie Kerly, M .A. , St John's 
College. Demy 8vo. 12s. 6d. 

The History of the Law of Prescription in England. Being the 

Yorke Prize Essay for 1890. By T. A. Herbert, B.A., LL.B, Demy 
8vo. iar. 

The History of the Doctrine of Consideration in English Law. 

Being the Yorke Prize Essay for 1891. By E. Jenks, M. A., Fellow of 
King's College. Crown 8vo. * [Marty ready, 

Tahles shewing the Differences hetween English and Indian Law. 

By Sir Roland Knyvet Wilson, Bart., M.A., LL.M. Demy 4to. is. 


Cambridge Historical Essays. 

Political Parties in Athens during the Peloponnesian War, 

by L. Whibley, M.A. (Prince Consort Dissertation, 1888.) Second 
Edition. Crown 8vo. 2s. 6d. 

Pope Gregory the Great and his relations with Gaul, by 
F. W. Kellett, M.A. (Prince Consort Dissertation, 1888.) Crown 
8vo. 2 s. 6d. 

The Constitutional Experiments of the Commonwealth, being 

the Thirlwall Prize Essay for 1889, by E. Jenks, M.A., LL.B. 
Crown 8vo. 2s. 6d. 

On Election by Lot at Athens, by J. W. Headlam, M.A. 

(Prince Consort Dissertation, 1890.) Crown 8vo. {Out of print.) 

The Influence and Development of English Gilds. (Thirlwall 

Prize Essay, 1891.) By F. Aidan Hibbert, B.A. Crown 8vo. 

(Out of print.) 

London: Cambridge Warehouse, Ave Maria Lane. 


The Somerset Religious Houses. By W. A. J. Archbold, 

B.A., LL.B. (Prince Consort Dissertation, 1890.) Crown 8vo. 
1 or. 6d. 

The Early History of Frisia, with special relation to its Con- 
version. By W. E. Collins, B.A. (Prince Consort Dissertation, 
1890.) Cr. 8vo. [Preparing, 

The Origin of Metallic Currency and Weight Standards. By W. 

. Ridgeway, M.A., Professor of Greek, Queen's College, Cork, and late 
Fellow of Gonville and Caius College. Demy 8vo. 15X. Net 

The Growth of English Industry and Commerce during the Early 
and Middle Ages. By W. Cunningham, D.D. Demy 8vo. 16s. 

The Growth of English Industry and Commerce in Modern Times. 

By the same Author. Demy 8vo. i8j. 

A History of Epidemics in Britain. From a.d. 664 to the extinc- 
tion of the Plague in 1666. By Charles Creighton, M.D., M.A., 
formerly Demonstrator of Anatomy in the University of Cambridge. 
Demy 8vo. iSs. 

Two Unfinished Papers by the late Henry Bradshaw, i. The 

Collectio Canonum Hibernensis. 2. On the Chartres and Tours MSS. 
of the Hibernensis. (64 pp.) Demy 8vo. 2s. 6d. 

Statutes of Lincoln Cathedral. Arranged by the late Henry 
Bradshaw, with illustrative Documents. Edited by Chr. Wordsworth, 
M.A. Part I. containing the complete text of ' Liber Niger ' with Mr 
Bradshaw's Memorandums. Demy 8vo. 12s. 6d. 

Ecclesiae Londino-Batavae archivum. Tomvs Primvs. Abra- 

hami Ortelii et virorum eruditorum ad eundem et ad Jacobvm 
Colivm Ortelianvm Epistulae, (1524— 1628). Tomvs Secvndvs. 
EPISTVLAE ET TRACTATVS cum Reformationis turn Ecclesiae 
Londino-Batavae Historiam Illustrantes 1544 — 1622. Ex autographis 
mandante Ecclesia Londino-Batava edidit Joannes Henricvs Hessels. 
Demy 4to. Each vol., separately, £3. 10s. Taken together £$. 5J. Net. 

The Growth of British Policy, by J. R. Seeley, M.A. 

[In the Press. 

The Despatches of Earl Gower, English Ambassador at the court 

of Versailles, June 1790 to August 1792, and the Despatches of Mr Lindsay 
and Mr Monro. By O. Browning, M.A. Demy 8vo. i$s. 

Life and Times of Stein, or Germany and Prussia in the Napoleonic 

A g e » by J. R. Seeley, M.A. Portraits and Maps. 3 vols. Demy 8vo. 30*. 

Rhodes in Ancient Times. By Cecil Torr, M.A. With six 

plates. 1 or. 6d. 

Rhodes in Modern Times. By the same Author. With three 
plates. Demy 8vo. 8s. 

Ancient Ships. By the same Author. With numerous illustra- 
tions. [In the Press. 

London: Cambridge Warehouse, Ave Maria Lane. 


Chronological Tables of Greek History. By Carl Peter. Trans- 
lated from the German by G. Chawner, M.A. Demy 4to. 10s. 

History of Nepal, edited with an introductory sketch of the Country 
and People by Dr D. Wright. Super-royal 8vo. 10s. 6d. 

Kinship and Marriage in early Arabia, by W. Robertson Smith, 

M.A., LL.D. Crown 8vo. p. 6d. 

Natural Religion in India. The Rede Lecture, delivered in the 
Senate-House, Cambridge, on June 17, 1891, by Sir Alfred Lyall, 
K.C.B., K.C.I.E. Cloth, is. Paper Covers, is. 


Erasmus. The Rede Lecture, delivered in the Senate-House, Cam- 
bridge, June 11, 1890, by R. C. Jebb, Litt.D. Cloth, 2s. Paper Covers, is. 

The Life and Letters of the Reverend Adam Sedgwick, LL.D., 

F.R.S. (Dedicated, by special permission, to Her Majesty the Queen.) By 
John Willis Clark, M.A., F.S.A., and Thomas M c Kenny Hughes, 
M.A. 2 vols. Demy 8vo. 36*. 

Memorials of the Life of George Elwes Corrie, D.D., formerly Master 
of Jesus College. By M. Holroyd. Demy 8vo. 12s. 


Travels in Arabia Deserta in 1876 and 1877. By Charles 

M. Doughty. With Illustrations. Demy 8vo. 2 vols. £$. $s. 

k Journey of Literary and Archaeological Research in Nepal and 

Northern India, 1884—5. Bv c - Bendall, M.A. Demy 8vo. 10s. 

ART, &c. 

Illuminated Manuscripts in Classical and Mediaeval Times, their 

Art and their Technique, by J. Henry Middleton, Slade Professor of 
Fine Art. Royal 8vo. With Illustrations. 21s. 

The Engraved Gems of Classical Times with a Catalogue of the 

Gems in the Fitzwilliam Museum by J. H. Middleton, M.A. Royal 8vo. 
12s. 6d. 

The Lewis Collection of Gems and Rings, in the possession of 
Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, with an Introductory Essay on 
Ancient Gems by J. H. Middleton, M.A. Royal 8vo. 6s. 

A Catalogue of Ancient Marbles in Great Britain, by Prof. Adolf 

Michaelis. Translated by C. A. M. Fennell, Litt.D. Royal 8vo. 
Roxburgh (Morocco back). £2. 2s. 

Some Interesting Syrian and Palestinian Inscriptions, by J. Rendel 
Harris, M.A. Royal 8vo. 4*. 

London; Cambridge Warehouse^ Ave Maria Lane. 


The Types of Greek Coins. By Percy Gardner, Litt.D., F.S.A. 
With 16 plates. Impl. 4to. Cloth £1. 11s. 6d* Roxburgh (Morocco 
back) £2. vs. 

Essays on the Art of Pheidias. By C. Waldstein, Litt.D., PhiLD. 

Royal 8vo. With Illustrations. Buckram, 30^. 

The Woodcutters of the Netherlands during the last quarter of 
the Fifteenth Century. By W. M. Conway. Demy 8vo. 10s. 6d. 

The Literary remains of Albrecht Diirer, by W. M. Conway. With 
Transcripts from the British Museum Manuscripts, and Notes upon them 
by LiNA Eckenstein. Royal 8vo. 21s. 

The Collected Papers of Henry Bradshaw, including his Memoranda 

and Communications read before the Cambridge Antiquarian Society. 
With 13 facsimiles. Edited by F. J. H. Jenkinson, M.A. Demy8vo. 16s. 


Counterpoint. A practical course of study. By the late Prof. 
Sir G. A. Macfarren, Mus. D. 5th Edition, revised. Cr. 4to. 7<f. 6d. 


Eighteen Years of University Extension. By R. D. Roberts, M. A., 

D.Sc, Organizing Secretary for Lectures to the Local Examinations and 
Lectures Syndicate. With Map and Diagrams. Crown 8vo. is. 

Occasional Addresses on Educational Subjects. By S. S. Laurie, 

M.A., F.R.S.E. Crown 8vo. 5s. 

Lectures on Language and Linguistic Method in the School. By 

S. S. Laurie, M.A., LL.D. Crown 8vo. 4*. 

Lectures on Teaching, delivered in the University of Cambridge. 
By J. G. Fitch, M.A., LL.D. Cr. 8vo. $s. 

Lectures on the Growth and Training of the Mental Faculty, 

delivered in the University of Cambridge. By Francis Warner, M.D., 
F.R.C.P. Crown 8vo. 4*. 6d. 


A Primer of Cursive Shorthand. By H. L. Callendar, M.A. 6d. 

Essays from the Spectator in Cursive Shorthand, by H. L. 
Callendar, M.A. 6d. 

Reading Practice in Cursive Shorthand. Easy extracts for Begin- 
ners. St Mark, Pt. I. Vicar of Wakefield, Chaps. I.— IV. Alice in 
Wonderland, Chap. VII. Price 3d. each. 

London: Cambridge Warehouse, Ave Maria Lane. 


A System of Phonetic Spelling, adapted to English by H. L. Callen- 
dar, M.A. Extra Fcap. 8vo. 6d. 

A Manual of Orthographic Cursive Shorthand. By H. L. Cal- 

lendar, M.A. is. Supplement to the above. 6d. 

A Manual of Cursive Shorthand, by H. L. Callendar, M.A. 

Extra Fcap. 8vo. is. 


Town and Gown. Some five years of work in St George's, 
Camberwell. By J. Tetlev Rowe, M.A., Trinity College Missioner, 
with a few words of Preface by Rev. H. Montagu Butler, D.D., 
Master of Trinity College, Cambridge. Crown 4to. is. 

The Architectural History of the University of Cambridge and 

of the Colleges of Cambridge and Eton, by the late Professor Willis, 
M.A., F.R.S. Edited with large Additions and a Continuation to the 
present time by J. W. Clark, M.A. 4 Vols. Super Royal 8vo. £6. 6s. 
Also a limited Edition of the same, consisting of 1 20 numbered Copies 
only, large paper Quarto; the woodcuts and steel engravings mounted 
on India paper ; of which 100 copies are now offered for sale, at Twenty- 
five Guineas net each set. 

The University of Cambridge from the Earliest Times to the 

Royal Injunctions of 1535. By J. B. Mullinger, M.A. Demy 8vo. 11s. 

Part II. From the Royal Injunctions of 1535 to the Accession of Charles 

the First. Demy 8vo. 18s. 

Scholae Academicae : some Account of the Studies at the English 
Universities in the Eighteenth Century. By Christopher Words- 
worth, M.A. Demy 8vo. 10s. 6d. 

History of the College of St John the Evangelist, by Thomas 
Baker, B.D., Ejected Fellow. Edited by John E. B. Mayor, M.A., 
Fellow of St John's. Two Vols. Demy 8vo. 14s. 

Admissions to Gonville and Caius College in the University of 

Cambridge March 1558 — 9 to Jan. 1678 — 9. Edited by J. Venn, Sc.D., 
and S. C. Venn. Demy 8vo. 10s. 

A Chronological List of the Graces, etc. in the University Registry 
which concern the University Library, is. 6d. 

Trusts, Statutes and Directions affecting (1) The Professorships 
of the University. (2) The Scholarships and Prizes. (3) Other Gifts and 
Endowments. Demy 8vo. $s. 

Graduati Cantabrigienses : sive catalogus exhibens nomina eorum 

quos gradu quocunque ornavit Academia Cantabrigiensis (1800*1884). 
Cura H. R. Luard, S. T. P. Demy 8vo. 12s. 6d. 

London: Cambridge Warehouse^ Ave Maria Lane. 


Letters patent of Elizabeth and James the First, addressed to the 

University of Cambridge, with other Documents. Edited (with a trans- 
lation of the letters of Elizabeth) by J. W. Clark, M. A. Demy 8vo. i s. 6d. 

Statutes for the University of Cambridge and for the Colleges 

therein, made, published and approved (1878— 1882) under the Uni* 
versities of Oxford and Cambridge Act, 1877. Demy 8vo. 16s. 

Statutes of the University of Cambridge. 3^. 6d. 

Ordinances of the University of Cambridge. 1892. 7s. 6d. 

A Compendium of University Regulations. Demy 8vo. 6d. 

Cambridge University Reporter (Published by authority). Contain- 
ing all the Official Notices of the University Reports of Discussions in 
the Schools, and Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical, Antiquarian 
and Philological Societies, yi. weekly. 


University Library. 

A Catalogue of the Manuscripts. Demy 8vo. 5 vols. icy. 
each. Index to Catalogue, iar. 

A Catalogue of Adversaria and printed books containin§ 
MS. notes. Demy 8vo. 3s. 6d. 

Catalogus Bibliothecae Burckhardtiana. Demy Quarto. 55. 

A Catalogue of the Hebrew Manuscripts. By the late Dr 


Catalogue of the Buddhist Sanskrit Manuscripts. Edited 
by C. Bend all, M.A. 12s. 

Bulletin (weekly), containing titles of new books added to the 

Library. Crown 8vo. 6s. a year, paid in advance. 

Catalogue of the collection of books on Logic presented by 
J. Venn, Sc.D. is. 6d. 
A Catalogue of the Portsmouth Collection of Books and Papers 

written by or belonging to Sir Isaac Newton. Demy 8vo. 5*. 

The Illuminated Manuscripts in the Library of the Fitzwilliam 
Museum, Cambridge, by W. G. Searle, M.A. 7s. 6d. 

A Catalogue of the Egyptian Antiquities in the Fitzwilliam Museum. 

By E. A. Wallis Budge, Litt.D., F.S.A. [In the Press. 

A Descriptive Catalogue of the Manuscripts in the Fitzwilliam 

MUSEUM. Illustrated with Twenty Plates of Photographic Reproduc- 
tions. By M. R. James, M.A. Royal 8vo. [In the Press. 

London; Cambridge Warehouse, Ave Maria Lane. 



These Papers are published in occasional numbers every Term, and in 
volumes for the Academical year. 

Vol XVII. Papers for the year 1887—88. Vol. XVIII. Papers 
for the year 1888—89. Vol. XIX. Papers for the year 1889—90. Vol. 
XX. Papers for the year 1890 — 91. Vol. XXI. Papers for the year 
1891 — 92. 15s. each. 


Examination Papers for Entrance and Minor Scholarships and 

Exhibitions in the Colleges of the University of Cambridge. Part I, 
Mathematics and Science. Part II. Classics, Mediaeval and Modern 
Languages and History (Michaelmas Term, 1890). Part III. Mathe- 
matics and Science. Part IV. Classics, Law and History (Lent Term, 
1891). PartV. Mathematics and Science. Part VI. Classics, Mediseval 
and Modern Languages and History (June 1891 — June 1892). 2s. each. 


Examination Papers, for various years, with the Regulations for 

the Examination. Demy 8vo. 2s. each, or by post 2s. 2d. 
Class Lists, for various years. Boys is. Girls 6d. 
Annual Reports of the Syndicate, with Supplementary Tables 

showing the success and failure of Candidates. 2s. each, by post 2s. 3d. 


Examination Papers, for various years, with the Regulations for 

the Examination. Demy 8vo. 2s. each, by post 2s. 2d. 
Class Lists, for various years. is. each. By post is. 2d. 
Reports of the Syndicate. Demy 8vo. is., by post is. 2d. 


Examination Papers for various years with the Regulations for 
the Examination. Demy 8vo. 6d., by post yd. 


Papers set in the Examination for Certificates, July, 1891. 2s. 
Papers set in the Examination for Commercial Certificates, July,. 

1891. 6d. 

List of Candidates who obtained Certificates at the Examination 

held in 1891 ; and Supplementary Tables. $d. 
Regulations of the Board for 1893. gd. 
Regulations for the Commercial Certificate, 1893. $d. 
Report of the Board for the year ending Oct. 31, 1891. is. 

London: Cambridge Warehouse, Ave Maria Lane. 


€i)t Cambridge Mbit for ^tbools; anli Colleges. 

General Editor : J. J. S. PEROWNE, D.D., Bishop of Worcester. 
"It is difficult to commend too highly this excellent series." — Guardian. 

Now Ready. Cloth, Extra Fcap. 8vo. With Maps. 
Book of Joshua. By Rev. G. F. Maclear, D.D. 2s. 6d. 
Book of Judges. By Rev. J. J. Lias, M.A. 35. 6d. 
First Book of Samuel. By Rev. Prof. Kirkpatrick, D.D. 3^. 6d. 
Second Book of Samuel. By Rev. Prof. Kirkpatrick, D.D. 35. 6d. 
First Book of Kings. By Rev. Prof. Lumby, D.D. $s. 6d. 
Second Book of Kings. By Rev. Prof. Lumby, D.D. 3J. 6d. 
Book of Job. By Rev. A. B. Davidson, D.D. 5*. 
Book of Psalms. Bookl. By Rev. Prof. Kirkpatrick, D.D. 3s. 6d. 
Book of Ecclesiastes. By Very Rev. E. H. Plumptre, D.D. $s. 
Book of Jeremiah. By Rev. A. W. Streane, B.D. 4s. 6d. 
Book of Ezekiel. By Rev. A. B. Davidson, D.D. $s. 
Book of Hosea. By Rev. T. K. Cheyne, M.A., D.D. $s. 
Books of Obadiah and Jonah. By Archd. Perowne. 2s. 6d. 
Book of Micah. By Rev. T. K. Cheyne, M.A., D.D. 1*. 6d. 
Books of Haggai, Zechariah & Malachi. By Arch. Perowne. 3s. 6d. 
Book of Malachi. By Archdeacon Perowne. is. 
Gospel according to St Matthew. By Rev. A. Carr, M.A. 2s. 6d. 
Gospel according to St Mark. By Rev. G.F. Maclear, D.D. 2s. 6d. 
Gospel according to St Luke. By Archdeacon Farrar. 4s. 6d. 
Gospel according to St John. By Rev. A. Plummer, D.D. 4^. 6d. 
Acts of the Apostles. By Prof. Lumby, D.D. 4^. 6d. 
Epistle to the Romans. Rev. H. C. G. Moule, M.A. 35. 6d. 
First Corinthians. By Rev. J. J. Lias, M.A. 2s. 
Second Corinthians. By Rev. J. J. Lias, M.A. 2s. 
Epistle to the Galatians. By Rev. E. H. Perowne, D.D. is. 6d. 
Epistle to the Ephesians. Rev. H. C. G. Moule, M.A. 2 s. 6d. 
Epistle to the Hebrews. By Archdeacon Farrar, D.D. 3s. 6d. 
Epistle to the Philippians. By Rev. H. C. G. Moule, M.A. 2s. 6d. 
Epistles to the Thessalonians. By Rev. G. G. Findlay, B.A. 2s. 
General Epistle of St James. By Very Rev. E. H. Plumptre. is. 6d. 
Epistles of St Peter and St Jude. By the same Editor. 2s. 6d. 
Epistles of St John. By Rev. A. Plummer, M.A., D.D. $s. 6d. 
Book of Revelation. By Rev. W. H. Simcox, M.A. 3^. 

London: Cambridge Warehouse, Ave Maria Lane. 


Book of Genesis. By the Bishop of Worcester. 
Books of Exodus, Numbers and Deuteronomy. By Rev. C. D. 


First and Second Books of Chronicles. By Very Rev. Dean 

Spence, D.D. 
Books of Ezra and Nehemiah. By Rev. Prof. Ryle, B.D. 
Book of Isaiah. By Prof. W. Robertson Smith, M.A. 
Epistles to Colossians & Philemon. By Rev. H. C. G. Moule, M.A. 
Epistles to Timothy and Titus. By Rev. A. E. Humphreys, M.A. 

Cfte Smaller aDambrifcge Bible for £>tf)Q0lsu 

" The notes elucidate every possible difficulty with scholarly brevity and clearness.'' — 
Saturday Review. 

^ "We can cordially recommend this series of text-books, not only to those for whom it is 
primarily intended, but also to the clergy and other workers for use in Bible-classes." — Church 

"Accurate scholarship is obviously a characteristic of their productions, and the work of 
simplification and condensation appears to have been judiciously and skilfully performed." — 

Now ready. Price is. each. 
Book of Joshua. By J. S. Black, M.A. 
Book of Judges. By J. S. Black, M.A. 

First and Second Books of Samuel. By Prof. Kirkpatrick, D.D. 
First and Second Books of Kings. By Rev. Prof. Lumby, D.D. 
Gospel according to St Matthew. By Rev. A. Carr, M. A. 
Gospel according to St Mark. By Rev. G. F. Maclear, D.D. 
Gospel according to St Luke. By Archdeacon Farrar, D.D. 
Gospel according to St John. By Rev. A. Plummer, D.D. 
Acts of the Apostles. By Professor Lumby, D.D. 



with a Revised Text, based on the most recent critical authorities, 

and English Notes. 

Gospel according to St Matthew. By Rev. A. Carr, M.A. 4^. 6d. 
Gospel according to St Mark. By Rev. G. F. Maclear, D.D. 4s. 6d. 
Gospel according to St Luke. By Archdeacon Farrar. 6s. 
Gospel according to St John. By Rev. A. Plummer, D,D. 6s. 
Acts of the Apostles. By Prof. Lumby, D.D. 4 Maps. 6s. 
First Corinthians. By Rev. J. J. Lias, M.A. 3s. 
Second Corinthians. By Rev. J. J. Lias, M.A. 3s. 
Epistle to the Hebrews. By Archdeacon Farrar, D.D. 3s. 6d. 
Epistles of St John. By Rev. A. Plummer, M.A., D.D. 4^. 
Book of Revelation. By Rev. W. H. Simcox, M.A. [In the Press. 

London; Cambridge Warehouse \ Ave Maria Lane. 



%* Copies of the Pitt Press Series may generally be obtained in two volumes. 
Text and Notes separately. 


Aristophanes. Aves— Plutus— Ranae. By W. C. Green, M.A., 

late Assistant Master at Rugby School. 3*. 6d. each. 

Aristophanes. Vespae. By C. E. Graves, M.A. [In the Press. 

Euripides. Heracleidse. By E. A. Beck, M.A. 35. 6d. 

Euripides. Hercules Furens. By A. Gray, M.A., and J. T. 
Hutchinson, M.A. is. 

Euripides. Hippolytus. By W. S. Hadley, M.A. 2s. 

Euripides. Iphigeneia in Aulis. By C. E. S. Headlam, M.A. 2s. 6d. 

Herodotus. Book V. By E. S. Shuckburgh, M.A. y. 

Herodotus. Book VI. By the same Editor. 4s. 

Herodotus. Books VIII., IX. By the same Editor. 4s. each. 

[Nearly ready. 

Herodotus. Book VIII., Ch. 1-90. Book IX., Ch. 1—89. By the 

same Editor. $s. 6d. each. 

Homer. Odyssey, Book IX. Book X. By G. M. Edwards, M.A. 

2s. 6d. each. 

Homer. Odyssey, Book XXI. By the same Editor. 2s. 
Homer. Iliad. Book VI. By the same Editor. 2s. 
Homer. Iliad. Books XXII., XXIIL By the same Editor. 2s. each. 
Luciani Somnium Charon Piscator et De Luctu. By W. E. 

Heitland, M. A., Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge. 3*. 6d. 
Lucian. Menippus and Timon. By E. C. Mackie, B.A. 3J". 6d. 
Platonis Apologia Socratis. By J. Adam, M.A. 3s. 6d. 

Crito. By the same Editor. 2s. 6d. 

Euthyphro. By the same Editor. 2s. 6d. 

London: Cambridge Warehouse^ Ave Maria Lane, 


Plutarch's Lives of the Gracchi — Sulla— Timoleon. By H. A. 

Holden, M.A., LL.D. 6s. each. 
Plutarch's Life of Nicias. By the same Editor. $s. 
Plutarch's Life of Demosthenes. By the same Editor. 

\Nearly ready. 

Sophocles.— Oedipus Tyrannus. School Edition. By R. C. J ebb, 

Litt.D., LL.D. 4s. 6d. 

Thucydides. Book VII. By Rev. H. A. Holden, M.A., LL.D. 5*. 
Xenophon.— Agesilaus. By H. Hailstone, M.A. 2s. 6d. 
Xenophon.— Anabasis. By A. Pretor, M.A. Two vols. js. 6d. 
- Books I. III. IV. and V. By the same Editor. 

Price is. each. Books II. VI. and VII. is* 6d. each. 

Xenophon.— Cyropaedeia. Books I. II. By Rev. H. A. Holden, 
M.A., LL.D. 1 vols. 6s. 

Books III. IV. and V. By the same Editor. 5^. 

Books VI. VII. and VIII. By the same Editor. 5s. 

Beda's Ecclesiastical History, Books III., IV. Edited by J. E. B. 

Mayor, M.A., and J. R. Lumby, D.D. Revised Edit. is. 6d. 
Books I. II. \In the Press. 

Caesar. De Bello Gallico Comment. I. By A. G. Peskett, M.A. 

is. 6d. Com. II. III. is. 
Comment. I. II. III. &. Com. IV. V. is. 6d. Com. VI. and 

Com. VIII. is. 6d. each. Com. VII. is. 

De Bello Civili. Comment. I. By the same Editor. $s. 

M. T. Ciceronis de Amicitia.— de Senectute— pro Sulla Oratio, By 

J. S, Reid, Litt.D., Fellow of Gonville and Caius College. 3*. 6d. each. 

M. T. Ciceronis Oratio pro Archia Poeta. By the same. 2s. 

M. T. Ciceronis pro Balbo Oratio. By the same. is. 6d. 

M. T. Ciceronis in Gaium Verrem Actio Prima. By H. Cowie, 
M.A., Fellow of St John's College, is. 6d. 

M. T. Ciceronis in Q. Caecilium Divinatio et in C. Verrem Actio. 
By W. E. Heitland, M.A. , and H. Cowie, M.A. 3s. 

M. T. Ciceronis Oratio pro Tito Annio Milone. By John Smyth 
Purton, B.D. 2s. 6d. 

Loiidon : Cambridge Warehouse, Ave Maria Lane. 


M. T. Ciceronis Oratio pro L. Murena. By W. E. Heitland, M. A. 3s. 

M. T. Ciceronis pro Cn. Plancio Oratio, by H. A. Holden, LL.D. 

Third Edition. 4 j. 6d. 

M. Tulli Ciceronis Oratio Philippica Secunda. By A. G. Peskett, 

M.A. %s. 6d. 

M. T. Ciceronis Somnium Scipionis. By W. D. Pearman, M.A. 2s. 

Horace. Epistles, Book I. By E. S. Shuckburgh, M.A. 2s. 6d. 

Livy. Books IV., VI., IX. By H. M. Stephenson, M.A. 2s. 6d. ea. 

Book V. By L. Whibley, M.A. 2s. 6d. 

Books XXI., XXII. By M. S. Dimsdale, M.A. 2s. 6d. each. 

Book XXVII. By H. M. Stephenson, M.A. 2s. 6d. 

M. Annaei Lucani Pharsaliae Liber Primus. By W. E. Heitland, 
M.A., and C. E. Haskins, M.A. is. 6d. 

Lucretius, Book V. By J. D. Duff, M.A., Fellow of Trinity 

College. Price is. 

P.OvidiiNasonisFastorumLiberVI. ByA.SiDGwiCK,M.A. is.6d. 

Ovidii Nasonis Metamorphoseon Liber I. By L. D. Dowdall, 
LL.B., B.D. is. 6d. 

Quintus Curtius. A Portion of the History (Alexander in India). 
By W. E. Heitland, M.A. and T. E. Raven, B.A. 3s. 6d. 

Vergil. The Complete Works. By A. Sidgwick, M.A. Two 
.Vols. Vol. I. Introduction and Text. 3^. 6d. Vol, II. Notes. 4s. 6d. 

P. Vergili Maronis Aeneidos Libri I.— XII. By the same Editor. 
1 s. 6d» each. 

P. Vergili Maronis Bucolica. By the same Editor, is. 6d. 

P. Vergili Maronis Georgicon Libri I. II. By the same Editor, 

2S. Libri III. IV. By the same Editor, is. 


Bataille de Dames. By Scribe and Legouve. By Rev. H. A. 
Bull, M.A. is. 

Dix Annees d'Exil. Livre II. Chapitres 1—8. Par Madame la 
Baronne de Stael-Holstein. By the late G. Masson, B.A. and 
G. W. Prothero, M.A. New Edition, enlarged. is. 

Histoire du Steele de Louis XIV. par Voltaire. Chaps. I.— XIII. 

By Gustave Masson, B.A. and G. W. Prothero, M.A. is. 6d. 
Chaps. XIV.— XXIV. is. 6d. Chap. XXV. to end. is. 6d. 

London: Cambridge Warehouse^ Ave Maria Lane. 


Fredegonde et Brunehaut. A Tragedy in Five Acts, by N. Le- 


Jeanne D'Arc. By A. de Lamartine. By Rev. A. C. Clapin, 
M.A. Revised Edition by A. R, Ropes, M.A. is. 6d. 

La Canne de Jonc. By A. De Vigny. By H. W. Eve, M.A. is. 6d. 

La Jeune Siberienne. Le Lepreux de la Cite D'Aoste. Tales by 
Count Xavier de Maistre. By Gustave Masson, B.A. is. 6d. 

La Picciola. By X. B. Saintine. By Rev. A. C. Clapin, M.A. 2s. 

La Guerre. By MM. Erckmann-Chatrian. By the same 
Editor. 3-r. 

La Metromanie. A Comedy, by Piron. By G. Masson, B.A. 2s. 

Lascaris ou Les Grecs da XV E Siecle, Nouvelle Historique, par 

A. F. Villemain. By the same. is. 

La Suite du Menteur. A Comedy by P. Corneille. By the 

same. 2s. 

Lazare Hoche — Par Emile de Bonnechose. With Four Maps. 

By C. Colbeck, M.A. is. 

Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme, Come'die-Ballet en Cinq Actes. Par 
J.-B. Poquelin de Moliere (1670). By Rev. A. C. Clapin, M.A. is. 6d. 

Le Directoire. (Considerations sur la Revolution Francaise. 

Troisieme et quatrieme parties.) Revised and enlarged. By G. Masson, 
B.A. and G. W. Prothero, M.A. is. 

Les Plaideurs. Racine. ByE. G.W.Braunholtz, M.A., Ph.D. 2s. 
(Abridged Edition.) is. 

Les Precieuses Ridicules. Moliere. By E. G. W. Braunholtz, 
M.A., Ph.D. is. 

(Abridged Edition.) is. 

L'Ecole des Femmes. Moliere. By George Saintsbury, M.A. 

is. 6d. 

Le Philosophe sans le savoir. Sedaine. By H. A. Bull, M.A., 

late Master at Wellington College, is. 

Lettres sur Thistoire de France (XIII— XXIV). Par Augustin 
Thierry. By G. Masson, B.A. and G. W. Prothero. is. 6d. 

Le Verre d'Eau. A Comedy, by Scribe. Edited by G Col- 
beck, M.A. is. 

Le Vieux Celibataire. A Comedy, by Collin D'Harleville. 

With Notes, by G. Masson, B.A. is. 

London; Cambridge Warehouse, Ave Maria Lane. 


M. Daru, par M. C. A. Sainte-Beuve (Causeries du Lundi, 

Vol. IX.). By G. Masson, B.A. Univ. Gallic, «. 
Polyeucte. By Corneille. By E. G. W. Braunholtz, M.A. 

[Nearly ready* 

Recits des Temps Merovingiens I— III. Thierry. By the late 
G. Masson, B.A. and A. R. Ropes, M.A. Map. $s. 


A. Book of Ballads on German History. By W. Wagner, Ph.D. 2s. 

A Book of German Dactylic Poetry. By W. Wagner, Ph.D. 3^. 

Benedix. Doctor Wespe. Lustspiel in fiinf Aufziigen. By Karl 
Hermann Breul, M.A., Ph.D. 3.?. 

Culturgeschichtliche Novellen, von W. H. Riehl. By H. J 
Wolstenholme, B.A. (Lond.). %s. 6d. 

Das Jahr 181 3 (The Year 181 3), by F. Kohlrausch. By 

Wilhelm Wagner, Ph.D. 2s, 

Der erste Kreuzzug (1095—1099) nach Friedrich von Raumer. 
The First Crusade. By W. Wagner, Ph. D. «. 

Der Oberhof. A Tale of Westphalian Life, by Karl Immer- 
mann. By Wilhelm Wagner, Ph.D. 3*. 

Der Staat Friedrichs des Grossen. By G. Freytag. By Wilhelm 
Wagner, Ph. D. 25, 

Die Karavane, von Wilhelm Hauff. By A. Schlottmann, Ph.D. 

Goethe's Hermann and Dorothea. By W. Wagner, Ph. D. Re- 
vised edition by J. W. Cartmell. 3*. 6d. 

Goethe's Knabeiyahre. (1749— 1 7 6 ^) Goethe's Boyhood. By W. 
Wagner, Ph.D. Revised edition by J. W. Cartmell, M.A. 2s. 

Hauff, Das Bild des Kaisers. By Karl Hermann Breul, M.A., 
Ph.D. $s. 

Hauff, Das Wirthshaus im Spessart. By A. Schlottmann, Ph.D., 

late Assistant Master at Uppingham School. 35*. 6d. 
Mendelssohn's Letters. Selections from. By James Sime, M.A. 3^. 

Schiller. Wilhelm Tell. By Karl Hermann Breul, M.A., Ph.D. 
is. 6d. 

(Abridged Edition.) is. 6d. 

Geschichte des Dreissigjahrigen Kriegs. By the same 

Editor. %s. 

London: Cambridge Warehouse, Ave Maria Lane. 


Selected Fables. Leasing and Gellert. By Karl Hermann 

Breul, M.A., Ph.D. is. 

Uhland. Ernst, Herzog von Schwaben. By H. J. Wolsten- 

holme, B.A. (LoncL). 3*. 6d. 

Zopf nnd Schwert. Lustspiel in funf Aufziigen von Karl Gutz 
kow. By H. J. Wolstenholme, B.A. (Lond.). 3s. 6d. 


An Apologie for Poetrie by Sir Philip Sidney. By E. S. Shuck- 
burgh, M. A. The text is a revision of that of the first edition of 1595. 35. 

A Discourse of the Commonwealf of thys Realme of Englande. 

First printed in 1581, and commonly attributed to W. S. Edited from 
the MSS. by the late Elizabeth Lamond. [In the Press. 

An Elementary Commercial Geography. A Sketch of the Com- 
modities and Countries of the World. By H. R. Mill, Sc. D., F.R.S.E. is. 

An Atlas of Commercial Geography. (Companion to the above.) 
By J. G. Bartholomew, F.R.G.S. With an Introduction by Dr H. R. 
Mill. $s. 

Ancient Philosophy from Thales to Cicero, A Sketch of, by 
Joseph B. Mayor, M.A. 3*. 6d. 

Bacon's History of the Reign of King Henry VII. By the Rev. 
Professor Lumby, D.D. 3^. 

British India, a Short History of. By Rev. E. S. Carlos, M. A. is. 

Cowley's Essays. By Prof. Lumby, D.D. 4s. 

General Aims of the Teacher, and Form Management. Two Lec- 
tures by F. W. Farrar, D.D. and R. B. Poole, B.D. is. 6d. 

John Amos Comenius, Bishop of the Moravians. His Life and 
Educational Works, by S. S. Laurie, A.M., F.R.S.E. 3s. 6d. 

Locke on Education. By the Rev, R. H. Quick, M.A. $$. 6d. 

Milton's Arcades and Comus. By A. W. Verity, M.A. 3^. 

Milton's Ode on the Morning of Christ's Nativity, L'Allegro, II Pen- 

seroso, and Lycidas. By the same Editor. 2s. 6d. 

Milton's Samson Agonistes. By the same Editor. 2s. 6d. 
Milton's Paradise Lost. Books I., II. By the same Editor. 

[In the Press. 

Milton's Paradise Lost. Books V., VI. By the same Editor. 2s. 
Milton's Paradise Lost. Books XI., XII. By the same Editor. 2s. 

London; Cambridge Warehouse, Ave Maria Lane. 


Milton's Tractate on Education. A facsimile reprint from the 
Edition of 1673. Edited by O. Browning, M.A. is. 

More's History of King Richard III. By J. Rawson Lumby, D.D. 

3*. 6d, 
On Stimulus. A Lecture delivered for the Teachers' Training 
Syndicate at Cambridge, May 1882, by A. Sidgwick, M.A. New Ed. is. 

Outlines of the Philosophy of Aristotle. Compiled by Edwin 
Wallace, M.A., LL.D. Third Edition, Enlarged. 4s. 6d. 

Sir Thomas More's Utopia. By Prof. Lumby, D.D. 3^. 6d. 

Theory and Practice of Teaching. By E. Thring, M.A. 4s. 6d. 

Teaching of Modern Languages in Theory and Practice. By c. 


Two Noble Kinsmen. By Professor Skeat, Litt.D. 3s. 6d. 
Three Lectures on the Practice of Education. I. On Marking, 

by H. W. Eve, M.A. II. On Stimulus, by A. Sidgwick, M.A. III. On 
the Teaching of Latin Verse Composition, by E. A. Abbott, D.D. is. 

Arithmetic for Schools. By C. Smith, M.A., Master of Sidney 

Sussex College, Cambridge. 3s, 6d. 

Elementary Algebra (with Answers to the Examples). By W. W. 
Rouse Ball, M.A. 4J. 6d. 

Euclid's Elements of Geometry, Books I.— IV. By H. M. Taylor, 

M.A. 3-r. Books I. and II. u. 6d. Books III. and IV. is. 6d. 
Books V. and VI. " [In the Press. 

Solutions to the Exercises in Euclid, Books I— IV. By W. W. 

Taylor, M.A. [Nearly ready. 

Elements of Statics and Dynamics. By S. L. Loney, M.A. js. 6d. 

Or in Two Parts. Part I. Elements of Statics. 4s. 6d. Part II. 
Elements of Dynamics. 3^. 6d. 

Mechanics and Hydrostatics for Beginners. By s. L. Loney, m.a. 

[In the Press. 

Elementary Treatise on Plane Trigonometry. By E. W. Hobson, 

Sc.D., and C. M. Jessop, M.A. 4s. 6d. 

HonUon : c. j. clay and sons, 

&laS£0fo t 263, ARGYLE STREET. 
Cam&tflJfl«: DEIGHTON, BELL AND CO. tUtpjig: F. A. BROCKHAUS. 
$zia gorfe: MACMILLAN AND CO.